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CIRWORLD en-US JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH 2321-1091 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> The Effectiveness of 12-Week Greek Traditional Dances Training for Improving Postmenopausal Women Cardiorespiratory Fitness <p>The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of 12-week Greek traditional dances training for improving postmenopausal women cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty three postmenopausal women, aged 55-68 years, were, randomly, chosen and separated to an experimental group (n=13) that attended a 12-week Greek traditional dances program at a frequency of three sessions per week, 50 minutes each, and a control group (n=10) that continued their daily habits for the same period. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the six-minute walking test (6MWT) and resting heart rate (HR). For data analysis, the non-parametric test Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U test, and Pearson correlation of the SPSS ver. 20.0 for windows was used. No significant difference in the baseline measures was detected between the two groups. After the intervention program it was found out a significant decrease in resting HR (z=-2.50, p&lt;0.05) for the experimental group, but an increase for the control group. A significant increase in distance travelled during the 6MWT (z=-3.18, p&lt;0.01) was observed in the experimental group, while the control group presented a significant decrease (z=-2.49, p&lt;0.05). The results provide evidence for the effectiveness of Greek traditional dances programs in improving the cardiorespiratory fitness of postmenopausal women.</p> FOTIOS MAVROVOUNIOTIS EFTHALIA KONTAXI EIRINI ARGIRIADOU ASTERIOS DELIGIANNIS ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-28 2018-05-28 12 2 2653 2671 10.24297/jssr.v12i2.7354 Academic freedom, integrity and research ethics <p>The limits, purpose and scope of academic freedom have been the subject of media controversy, partly because academic freedom and academic integrity are close relatives, the occasional missing link being research ethics. While freedom and integrity should protect each another, it is difficult for institutions and those who navigate them to balance competing and conflicting demands. Some of these demands are at the institutional level and others at the individual level. The purpose of this paper is to tease out some of the issues which are often too sensitive to articulate in the public square.</p> Anthony G Shannon Dr Danielle Eden ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-25 2018-05-25 12 2 2672 2679 10.24297/jssr.v12i2.7393 Neoliberal Democratic Reforms in Post-Gaddafi Era: Implications for Political Stability in Libya, 2011-2016 <p>This study investigates the neoliberal democratic reforms in post-Gaddafi era and its implications for political stability in Libya. Specifically, the study examined the contradictions of the ruling class project of democratization in Libya and their implications for political instability in the post-Gaddafi era. The study found that the democratic project as propagated by the ruling class in post-Gaddafi’s Libya is an intrinsic feature of modernization, a transition from authoritarian to more open political systems, a process linking economic reform and political liberalization perceived as not expressing an organic unity, but separate and either consecutively or concurrently linked. By viewing political instability as an inevitable pendulum of the cyclical transition from authoritarian to more democratic system, neoliberal democracy in post-Gaddafi’s Libya legitimizes authoritarianism in so far as it promotes modernization and liberal system of free market economy. The implication of the study is that the adoption of a new economic system, as well as western-style political institutions in post-Gaddafi Libya, relegating the consultation and active participation of the Libyan people undermined the democratic project. The exclusion of Libyans in the democratization process ultimately gave rise to political instability in post-revolution Libya. We therefore, recommended a referendum as a preferred option for Libyans to decide economic and political organization of Libya.</p> Okey Oji Raymond Adibe Chukwuemeka Ejiofor Ikemefuna Nwoke  Chikwado Ezugworie ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-30 2018-05-30 12 2 2680 2690 10.24297/jssr.v12i2.7447 Social and Health Inequalities in Rich and Developed Countries: The Role of Sociology and Suggestion of Future Sociological Agendas <p>In the early 1840s, Friedrich Engels and Rudolph Virchow argued that the “mode of social organization” was a lens through which the social patterning of disease could be understood (Scambler, 2012: 131). Virchow was reluctant to attribute disease to individual behaviour, and asserted that illness belonged to the discipline of social science (de Maio, 2010: 20). In the late 20th century Richard G. Wilkinson, a British social epidemiologist and a professor at University of Nottingham, echoed Engels and Virchow, postulating that Emile Durkheim, if he remained alive, would analyse suicide based on the modern burden in developed societies (Wilkinson, 1996: 15). This article addresses the discourse on how the imbalanced distribution of class, income and social capital contributes to the poorer physical and psychosocial health conditions among socially disadvantaged cohorts, based on the arugments made by key scholars from the field of sociology and health. This article also examines the future sociological agendeas to better examine social and health inequalities, in accordance with ideas suggested by a variety of scholars, especially Graham Scambler. The article is review-based, prompting the understandings of the contemporary debates about social and health inequalities, and what roles should sociology play in such debates.</p> Jason Hung ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-04 2018-07-04 12 2 2691 2698 10.24297/jssr.v12i2.7479 Employee Engagement in Higher Education <p>Employee engagement is a critical issue across many industries, none more critical than in higher education. The examination herein is focused on the financial impact faculty/staff engagement can have on the higher education enterprise and beyond.&nbsp;</p> Stuart Wasilowski ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-04 2018-07-04 12 2 2699 2712 10.24297/jssr.v12i2.7435 War on Terror in Regional and Trans-Regional Context <p>Terrorism from the longer time has attracted many of the experts in history and present times to work on it with a quest to find out the causes and look for its cure. This article, I have made an endeavor to discuss terrorism from different aspects examining the history of the creation of different terrorist organizations; the research analyzes the latest Talibanization phenomenon. Before and after the 9/11 tragedy, there had been many discussions that seemed to have pondered upon “Good Talibans” and “Bad Talibans”, the study intends to make sense to both these terminologies by giving each of it sufficient time to have a clear understanding by examining through rich literature that illustrates both these terminologies candidly and categorically. The work on this topic is one of its kind that is unbiased that not only explains the mistakes being committed by the countries where the rogue elements like Al-Qaida and Taliban prevailed or are still prevailing, Though Afghanistan is in the focus but it has also pointed out the wrong policy decisions in different phases of time by the United States of America during the fight against terrorism.</p> Jamil Ahmed Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-11 2018-07-11 12 2 2713 2723 10.24297/jssr.v12i2.7451 Corporate Governance and Firm Performance: A Study of High Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow Firms <p>Excessive free cash flows can lead to high agency problems as retaining free cash flow reduces the ability of capital market to monitor managers. Managers are also likely to waste the free cash flow on value-decreasing investments. Based on the free cash flow hypothesis, this study examines the relationship between corporate governance and firm performance of a sample of high agency costs of free cash flow firms, which is defined as firms that have high free cash flow and low investment opportunities. The sample firms are extracted from firms listed on the S&amp;P/TSX composite index between 2009 and 2012. Using corporate governance scores provided by <em>The Globe and Mail</em>, this study finds that better corporate governance is associated with better firm performance, measured by return on equity. The results highlight the importance of corporate governance in protecting shareholders’ interests.</p> Dan Lin Lu Lin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-31 2018-07-31 12 2 2724 2731 10.24297/jssr.v12i2.7533 What does our faith mean when faced with a disaster? <p>Disasters are a prominent feature of our lives as they appear to become more devasting and more frequent. Though we understand the scientific nature of natural disasters there remains an element that maintains that natural disasters are under God’s control and sent for a reason. This study undertaken following Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans seeks to understand how people used their faith prior to, during in, and after the storm. Subsequently, the study finds that different denominations exhibit different behaviors and practices prior to, during and after the storm. These practices are consistent with differences in social class and race: those with fewer resources relying more on their faith, believing in a more direct link to God, and maintaining that God sent the storm as part of His plan to re-direct their life.</p> Alison Marie Simons ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-14 2018-08-14 12 2 2732 2746 10.24297/jssr.v12i2.7535