JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH Interested in submitting to this journal? We recommend that you review the About the Journal page for the journal's section policies, as well as the Author Guidelines. Authors need to register with the journal prior to submitting or, if already registered, can simply log in and begin the five-step process. CIRWORLD en-US JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH 2321-1091 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> <p>The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations. The submitting author is responsible for securing any permissions needed for the reuse of copyrighted materials included in the manuscript.</p> <p>While the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate on the date of its going to press, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.</p> Political participation of the chinese youth in market economy and implication on communist youth league <p>Political participation entails citizens’ engagement to exert influence on the political process and policies in a desired direction. Therein, participation of the youth has significance as a transient yet constantly receiving community with potential to shape the course of history in any society. The activities and functions of youth organizations have been pivotal in effecting changes in the twentieth century Asian socio-political and economic realms. Under the similar circumstances, the People’s Republic of China appears to be continuously evolving its social, economic, political and cultural regimes in response to the fluctuating demands of the citizens and the youth. This Essay fathoms changes in political participations of the youth in China, its implication on the Communist Youth League and how the Communist Youth League responds in the era of Market Economy.</p> Rakesh Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-29 2018-01-29 12 1 2489 2498 The Pershing Myth: Trump, Islamophobic Tweets, And The Construction Of Public Memory. <p>One of the enduring narratives of the 2016 presidential election was the nostalgic journey President Trump took the American public on to construct his ‘Islamophobic memory’ surrounding General Pershing’s actions during the American occupation of the Philippines. While the mobilization of memory by political actors is not new in Presidential elections, the mechanism utilized to impose and mobilize pubic memory was. This paper explores how the President Trump’s tweets via the Twitter social media platform transform into ‘mediated sites of contention’ in the nurturance of public nostalgia. As a public ‘site’ that is visited by millions of people -the tweet not only memorializes events of the past but it mobilizes meaning, memory, and the society’s sense of self, which has the ability to redirect and shape public memory. We argue that Trump’s nostalgic colonial folklore via the tweet serves his ideological sentiments and larger political platforms in order to promote a vision of the past to provide his right-wing ideologies and movement supporters currency.</p> Anwar Ouassini Mostafa Amini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-27 2018-02-27 12 1 2499 2504 Changing perceptions of conflict: The beneficiaries of Intra-ethnic conflict among the Abakuria Community, Kenya <p>Conflict in many parts of the world has become part of people’s life resulting in massive deaths, displacement of people and trail of destruction to property leading to manmade disasters. In Kenya, conflict is experienced as warring groups engage in armed and non-armed conflicts. A peculiar case is that of the Abakuria ethnic group, where inter-clan conflicts have become perpetual. The mechanisms used in managing the conflict have been both inadequate and ineffective as the conflicts keep recurring. It is on this backdrop that this study aimed at evaluating beneficiaries to the conflict with a view of establishing the root causes of intra-ethnic conflict. The study employed descriptive survey, ethnography and explanatory research designs. The target population for the study was 52,338 comprising of members of the indigenous conflict management systems, members of provincial administration, local and international Non-governmental Organizations, Community Based Organizations, Faith Based Organizations, community policing members, members of peace committees, civic leaders, District security team, warriors and community members/victims to the conflict. From the target population, a sample 638 was selected using purposive sampling, stratified sampling, transect walk and snowball sampling techniques. Data were collected using questionnaires, in-depth interviews and focus group discussion. Quantitative data generated from the study were analysed descriptively while qualitative data were analysed following the five steps of thematic data analysis: transcription, open coding, axial coding, selecting codes and formation of themes. The study established that there were several categories of beneficiaries to intra-ethnic conflict including government officials, traders, consumers, households, politicians and members of the traditional institutions. The study recommends that there is need to enlighten the community on the negative effects of intra-ethnic conflict. In addition, cartel of &nbsp;beneficiaries of such conflict who work to catalyse the conflict for their own benefit should be severely punished.</p> David Mwangi Kungu Risper Kerubo Omari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-27 2018-02-27 12 1 2505 2511 Development of science-environmental movement relationships: The case of Russia <p>There is a paradoxical situation in the world: after the end of the WWII the science took leading position in all spheres of human activity but there was no any fundamental research on science-environmental movement relationships. Recently, Russian science in public life exists in two major forms. First in the form of manifestos like the Pugwash Manifesto &nbsp;in the year of 1955 (Butcher, 2005) which resulted in long-term numerous gatherings, discussions and appeals to world community and the second in the form of scientists-turned-civil activists who consciously left their positions in research institutes and entered an environmental and other social movements. The following text is based on the empirical study of the above relationships from the early 1900s till now in its widest sense (i.e. including charity, justice, peaceful and other forms of civil activism). The major forms of this activism were as follows: the writing the programs of alterative development of science, industry and agriculture; a work as the tutors of the students’ nature protection movement; the participation in the work of the committees on civil rights and freedoms; the establishment of alternative units of experts and advisers for public hearings, etc. In the run of this long-term period the situation is turned upside down: those who were students have become the scientifically-sound leaders of complex interdisciplinary movements without boundaries who actively participate in global transnational projects with global stakeholders on equal ground. It gives me the grounds to speak on the emergence of a new format of science-social movement relationships. The author suggests a hypothesis that the researchers of current environmental movements are needed in an integrated socio-bio-technical paradigm of actor-subject matter development.&nbsp;</p> Oleg Yanitsky ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-27 2018-02-27 12 1 2512 2518 A Study on the stability of international reserve currency <p>This article uses the dynamic analysis of the small country open economic framework (Obstfeld and Rogoff) to establish a basic supply and demand model of two countries, which solves the stable condition that the international reserve currency reaches the balance. The equilibrium stability condition of reserve currency is that the solvency growth rate of reserve currency countries is not lower than the real yield of reserve currency and the actual output growth rate of the non-reserve currency countries, while the reserve currency countries should have larger economic volume. The test of the Bretton Woods system and the contemporary international reserve currency system with stable conditions shows that the Bretton Woods system and the contemporary international reserve monetary system do not meet the stability conditions.</p> Kaida Li ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-23 2018-02-23 12 1 2519 2524 Exploring the possibility of co-operation between higher education and industries in Malaysia <p>This case study attempts to explore the posibility of co-operation between Higher Education and Industries in Malaysia. It highlights on the need, importance and the problems faced by both the entities in co-operation and collaboration. Qualitative approach was&nbsp;used in this study. The interviews are semi-structured and are used to generate data from university deans, collage principals, company managers and chief executive officers (CEO). The issues of suitability and reliability as well as the process of sampling, administration and analysis of the instrument of data collection are discussed. In the course of the analysis and discussion, it compares the respective contribution made by the Universities and the Industries in the field of Research and Development (R&amp;D). Moreover, it provides suggestions to improve linkages for joint-ventures and concludes that the Universities and Industries must play complementary roles for mutual benefits in terms of knowledge dissemination and innovation. It also presents the views of the different researchers on the subject and considers the merits of the various types of co-operation suggested for the universities to keep pace with the global trend in upgrading their courses in Science and Technology.</p> <p>Keyword: Co-operation, Higher Education, Industries</p> Ramesh Sathappan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-23 2018-02-23 12 1 2525 2538 Globalization as an Affront to Indigenous Cultural World Views: Implications for Africa <p>Globalization espouses the idea of universalization of cultures and economies toward intensified social relations which unite distant localities. Its project cuts across geographical boundaries, cultures and sovereignties with the presumed aims of socio-political and economic development and unity of nations. However, it proposes monolithic kind of unity, which blurs cultural lines, destroys the beauty of cultural diversity, stifles social control, and diminishes cultural identities and distinctions thereby leading to forced acculturation. Besides creating a moral lacuna by its introduction of foreign ideologies into indigenous societies, globalization (or more particularly, cultural globalization) seems to have left Africans confused and without a defined ideology of life and development. Consequently, the worrisome impression created is that globalization is at best, Eurocentric agenda. Informed by these inequalities as witnessed by indigenous societies, this paper, which limitedly focuses on the harm of globalization on indigenous cultures (using the African-Igbo as a case study) suggests an adjusted relativist global culture to be called “the cultural pluralism approach”. This consciousness-raising process is advanced to check the pitfalls of a context-free global culture, which destroys indigenous cultures. The analytical method is adopted for this research.&nbsp;</p> Cardinal Ihejirika Jude Asike ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-07 2018-03-07 12 1 2539 2555 Teacher Leadership Model: Roles and Values <p>This project paper aimed at identifying the dimensions for teacher leadership model. &nbsp;The instrument used to measure the dimensions was adapted from Teacher Leadership Self-Assessment (TLSA) by Katzenmeyer and Moller (2009). &nbsp;This measurement tool consists of 47 items distributed into seven dimensions namely 1) self-awareness, 2) leading change, 3) communication, 4) diversity, 5) instructional proficiency and leadership, 6) continuous improvement, and 7) self-organization. &nbsp;This project paper involved 130 teachers of Mara Junior Science Colleges in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. &nbsp;Structural Equation Modelling technique was utilized to perform the required statistical analysis of the survey data. &nbsp;Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were carried out to substantiate the dimensions used. &nbsp;Based on the EFA and CFA, 4 dimensions are relevant for teacher leadership practice in Malaysian setting with 28 items identified to have high value of validity and reliability. &nbsp;The four dimensions are labelled as 1) self-awareness, 2) communication and change, 3) diversity and instructional proficiency, and 4) organized and continuous improvement. &nbsp;These dimensions could be characterized as values or roles of teacher leaders.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Wan Suhaila Wan Yaacob Dr Yahya Don ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-13 2018-03-13 12 1 2556 2567 The Concept and Model of Strategic Leadership and Its Importance in Increasing School Achievement <p>Strategic leadership is one of the leaderships practiced by school organizations today. Organizational capabilities and individual characteristics are two key components of strategic leadership that are indispensable to ensure that this strategic leadership can be realized effectively in schools.&nbsp; This article discusses the concept of strategic leadership, domain and elements and theories related to strategic leadership.&nbsp; In addition, this study also attempts to highlight Davies and Davies 2004 strategic leadership model which has nine elements under two key components of strategic leadership i.e. organizational capability and individual characteristics.&nbsp; Furthermore, the final part of the study discusses the importance of strategic leadership in the school organization.&nbsp; An overview of previous studies also shows that strategic leadership has significant relationships with school achievement.&nbsp; Hence, through the practice of strategic leadership that is preached in schools, the line of leadership of the school will be more capable in helping to improve the achievement of their respective schools.</p> Fazleen Mohamed Dr. Siti Noor Ismail ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-13 2018-03-13 12 1 2568 2574 Large Scale Public Welfare Schemes for enhancing employability in SAARC Countries: a SWOT Analysis <p><em>With the growing population, the problem of unemployment is escalated. To fight with this problem every governmental body launches various Public Welfare Schemes (PWS) from year to year for welfare of poor or below poverty line population i.e. giving wages by taking work.</em><em>PWS sometimes referred as public aid and&nbsp;</em><a href=""><em>social support</em></a><em>&nbsp;</em><em>for all citizens. Hence, it is very pertinent to understand which PWS is useful for which sector. Through this paper, an attempt is made to outline various PWS pertaining to SAARC nations only and with the help of SWOT analysis various parameters are identified like Strength, Weakness, opportunities and threats which will further helps in understanding the base of particular PWS. Lastly based on SWOT analysis discussion part is done in which general comparison of various PWS is done. Results will help in making understand which PWS carries how much importance and capability of generating employability and entrepreneurship. </em></p> Sundeep Kumar Dr.Monica Sharma Prof(Dr.) Awadhesh Kumar Bhardwaj Prof(Dr.)Govind Sharan Dangayach ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-22 2018-03-22 12 1 2575 2595 Assessment of Extension Services Delivery to Fish Farmers in South Western Nigeria <p>Inability of fish farmers in Nigeria to produce at a rate that can meet the population demand has been linked to lack of access to crucial information on improved fish farming technique. Information is an indispensable factor in fish farming and it is the basis of extension service delivery. This study was designed to describe demographic characteristic of fish farmers, identify sources of various information to fish farmers and identify information access constraints faced by farmers. Purposive sampling procedure was used to select 2 States and a total of 160 respondents were selected for the study. Descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation and Chi-Square (X<sup>2</sup>) was used for inferential statistics. Result revealed that mean age was 44.8 years, 77.5% were male, only 7.5% have no formal education and 98.1% were full time fish farmers. About 25.0% received information frequently, 50.6% rarely while 24.4% never received information from extension agents. Inadequate of extension contact was identified by 88.8% of the respondents as information access constraint. Chi-Square analysis showed significant relationship (X<sup>2</sup> = 13.426, p = 0.016) between source of information and utilization of information.</p> Apata O. M. O. M. Toluwase S. O. W Awoyemi A. O. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-23 2018-03-23 12 1 2596 2607 The School Culture in Demystifying The “Failure Syndrome” In A Kenyan High School <p>The issue that this study addresses is to find out why students in D classes (form one D; two D; three D and four D) historically perform poorly in class and eventually in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) compared to other classes in the school. To address this problem, the purpose of this study will be to discover why this particular stream historically performs dismally. To gather data, a questionnaire was administered to 52 students. The questionnaires were coded and analyzed. This data lead to the following five themes: school administrative support, self-efficacy, teachers, the other streams of students and parent involvement. These themes will be useful for understanding why this group of students performs poorly.</p> John Koskey Chang’ach ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-27 2018-03-27 12 1 2608 2618