Farmers' Intention to Leave The Agricultural Sector in East Java, Indonesia: A Crisis Through Non Agricultural Job Opportunities Challenges

  • Nuriah - Yuliati Departement of Agribusiness, Faculty of Agriculture, UPN "Veteren" East Java
  • Kusnandar Dr Graduate School of Sebelas Maret University
  • Teguh Soedarto University of Pembangunan Nasional “Veteran” East Java
  • Endang Siti Rahayu Graduate School of Sebelas Maret University
Keywords: Employment Opportunities, Farmers' Intentions Leaving the Agricultural Sector, Farmer Household


Farmers' intention to leave the agricultural sector is a crucial reasoned action for the future of the Indonesian agricultural sector. The aims of research are describe the type of livelihood that sustains the farm household's economy, and analyze the influence of Job Opportunities toward Farmer's Intentions Leaving the Agriculture Sector. The sampling was done by multistage sampling so that 360 households of paddy farmers were obtained in six villages, Bangil sub-district, Pasuruan Regency, Province of East Java. Data analysis using descriptive statistics and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) PLS analysis with Warp PLS software. The findings of the study indicate that the relatively large number of non-agricultural jobs carried out by the household labor of farmers, most of them are trade and factory employees. The best job opportunity is in line with farmers' favorite choice for non-agricultural livelihoods. Employment opportunities have a positive and significant impact on farmers' intention to leave the  agricultural sector.

Author Biographies

Kusnandar Dr, Graduate School of Sebelas Maret University

Departement of Agriculture Science, Graduate School of Sebelas Maret University, Central Java, Indonesia

Teguh Soedarto, University of Pembangunan Nasional “Veteran” East Java

Departement of Agribusiness, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Pembangunan Nasional “Veteran” East Java, Indonesia

Endang Siti Rahayu, Graduate School of Sebelas Maret University

Departement of Agriculture Science, Graduate School of Sebelas Maret University, Central Java, Indonesia


Abelson, M., 1987. Examination of Avoidable and Unavoidable Turnover. J. Appl. Psychol. 72, 382–386.

Abdillah, W., and Jogiyanto. 2015. Partial Least Sq. PLS Altern. Struct. Equ. Model. SEM within Business Research. CV Andi Offset. Yogyakarta.

Agwu, N.M., Nwankwo, E.E., Anyanwu, C.I., 2014. Determinants of agricultural labour participation among youths in Abia State, Nigeria. Int. J. Food Agric. Econ. 2, 157.

Barnes, L.L., Agago, M.O., Coombs, W.T., 1998. Effects of Job-Related Stress on Faculty Intention to Leave Academia. Res. High. Educ. 4, 457–469.

Blaauw, D., Ditlopo, P., Maseko, F., Chirwa, M., Mwisongo, A., Bidwell, P., Thomas, S., Normand, C., 2013. Comparing the job satisfaction and intention to leave of different categories of health workers in Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa. Glob. Health Action 6, 19287.

Brahmasari, H., Mujanah, H., 2017. The Effect of Individual Characteristics, Competence and Quality of Work Life On Work Motivation, Intention to Leave and Employee Performance Outsoursing Manufacturing Company in East Java Province. Arch. Bus. Res. 5.

Briones, R.M., 2013. Agriculture, rural employment, and inclusive growth. PIDS Discussion Paper Series.

Dedehouanou, S.F.A., Araar, A., Ousseini, A., Harouna, A.L., Jabir, M., 2018. Spillovers from off-farm self-employment opportunities in rural Niger. World Dev.

Deichmann, U., Shilpi, F., Vakis, R., 2009. Urban Proximity, Agricultural Potential and Rural Non-farm Employment: Evidence from Bangladesh. World Dev. 37, 645–660.

Esmara, H., 1986. Human Resources, Job Opportunity and Economic Development.

Fakunmoju, S., Woodruff, K., Kim, H.H., LeFevre, A., Hong, M., 2010. Intention to Leave a Job: The Role of Individual Factors, Job Tension, and Supervisory Support. Adm. Soc. Work 34, 313–328.

Friedman, B.A., 2007. Union Membership: Facet Satisfaction, and Intent to Leave: Further Evidence on the Voice Face of Unions. LERA Libr.

Ghozali, I., 2008. Structural equation modeling: Alternative Methods with Partial Least Square (PLS). Universitity of Diponegoro Press. Semarang. Indonesia.

Ghozali, I., Latan, H., 2015. Partial Least Squares, Concepts, Techniques and Applications Using Smartpls 3.0 Program for Empirical Research. Universitity of Diponegoro Press. Semarang. Indonesia.

Grubbström, A., Sooväli-Sepping, H., 2012. Estonian family farms in transition: a study of intangible assets and gender issues in generational succession. J. Hist. Geogr. 38, 329–339.

Halawi, A.H., 2014. Stimuli and effect of the intention to leave the organization. Eur. Sci. J. ESJ 10.

Hellman, C.M., 1997. Job Satisfaction and Intent to Leave. J. Soc. Psychol. 137, 677–689.

Herrendorf, B., Schoellman, T., 2017. Wages, human capital, and structural transformation.

Hussein, S., Moriarty, J., Stevens, M., Sharpe, E., Manthorpe, J., 2014. Organisational factors, job satisfaction and intention to leave among newly qualified social workers in England. Soc. Work Educ. 33, 381–396.

Jaros, S., Jermier, J., W. Koehler, J., Sincich, T., 1993. Effects of Continuance, Affective, and Moral Commitment on the Withdraw Process: An Evaluation of Eight Structural Equation Models. Acad. Manage. J. 36, 951–995.

Kaur, B., Pankaj, M., 2013. Antecedents of turnover intentions: A literature review. Glob. J. Manag. Bus. Stud. 3, 1219–1230.

Khan, M.S., Khan, I., Kundi, G.M., Khan, S., Nawaz, A., Khan, F., Yar, N.B., 2014. The Impact of Job Satisfaction and Organizational commitment on the Intention to leave among the Academicians. Int. J. Acad. Res. Bus. Soc. Sci. 4, 114.

Kock, N., 2015. WarpPLS 5.0 User Manual. 2015. Laredo TX ScriptWarp Syst.

Lewis, W.A., 1954. Economic development with unlimited supplies of labour. Manch. Sch. 22, 139–191.

Mamedov, O., Movchan, I., Ishchenko-Padukova, O., Grabowska, M., 2016. Traditional economy: innovations, efficiency and globalization. Econ. Sociol. 9, 61.

Nasir, N.F.B.M., Author, D.I.B.S., n.d. The Role of HRM Practices in Influencing Employees’ Intention to Leave.

Opeyemi, B.E., 2013. Identifying the Effect of Job Stress on Frontline Staffs’ Job Burnout, Job Engagement, Job Satisfaction and Intention to Leave: An Empirical Study in Nigeria.

Ranis, G., 2003. Is Dualism Worth Revisiting? Yale University, Economic Growth Center. Discussion Paper.

Rees, A., 1957. The Meaning and Measurement of Full Employment, in: The Measurement and Behavior of Unemployment. NBER, pp. 11–62.

Robbins, S.P., Judge, T.A., 2006. Organizational behavior. Tenth Edition. PT Indeks Kelompok Gramedia.

Rothmann, S., Diedericks, E., Swart, J.P., 2013. Manager relations, psychological need satisfaction and intention to leave in the agricultural sector. SA J. Ind. Psychol. 39, 01-11.

Sagir, S., 1989. Building human works: manpower issues and human resource development. Pustaka Sinar Harapan.

Simo, P., Enache, M., Sallan, J., Fernandez, V., 2010. Analysis of the relation between subjective career success, organizational commitment and the intention to leave the organization.

Singh, D., Singla, R., 2014. Factors Determining Employees Intent to Leave an Organization: A View from Private Education Industry with Special Reference to Professional Institutions in Patiala.

Smith, A., 1776. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Methuen.

Solimun, Fernandes, A., Nurjannah, N., 2017. Multivariate Statistical Method: Structural Equation Modeling Based on WarpPLS.

Supranto, J., 2007. Statistics for the Leader of Global Insight (ed 2). Salemba Press.

Tocco, B., Bailey, A., Davidova, S., 2013. Determinants to leave agriculture and change occupational sector: Evidence from an enlarged EU. International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.

Todaro, Michael P. and Smith, Stephen C. 2011. Economic Development. Eleventh Edition. United States: Addison Wesley.

Wang, X., Huang, J., Rozelle, S., 2017. Off-farm employment and agricultural specialization in China. China Econ. Rev. 42, 155–165.

Zentner, J., Berg, R.L., Pickett, W., Marlenga, B., 2005. Do parents’ perceptions of risks protect children engaged in farm work? Prev. Med. 40, 860–866.

Zhao, X., Deng, S., Zhou, Y., 2017. The impact of reference effects on online purchase intention of agricultural products: The moderating role of consumers’ food safety consciousness. Internet Res. 27, 233–255.

Zhongwei, S., Xiaofeng, Y., 2012. Disembedded Employment Relationship and Turnover Intention of Peasant-Workers. Based on a Survey of Peasant-Workers in the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta. Soc. Chin. J. Sociol. 32.

How to Cite
Yuliati, N., Dr, K., Soedarto, T., & Rahayu, E. S. (2019). Farmers’ Intention to Leave The Agricultural Sector in East Java, Indonesia: A Crisis Through Non Agricultural Job Opportunities Challenges. JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH, 13, 2854-2863.