Quality of Life at Work of Janitors Workers
The aim of the study was to analyze the perception of quality of life in the work of janitor employees. The design was descriptive with a mixed approach. The 11 janitor workers of a Faculty of a public university participated and they responded individually to a questionnaire. In addition, eight of them participated in semi-structured interviews where the theme of study was addressed. The results showed that janitor workers have a high general perception of the quality of life at work associated with a high level of subjective wellbeing and satisfaction with work, good health and social interaction with coworkers, boss and members of the organization. For all janitor workers, the family is a great motivator and support in their daily lives and works. However, a work-family imbalance was found that women perceive greater than men.
Bakker, A. B. & Demerouti, E. (2007). The job demands-resources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(3), 309-328. DOI: 10.1108/02683940710733115.
Beham, B. & Drobonic, S. (2010). Satisfaction with work–life balance among German office workers. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(6), 669-689. DOI: 10.1108/02683941011056987.
Bianchi, S. M. & Milkie, M. A. (2010). Work and Family Research in the First Decade of the 21st Century. Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 705-725. DOI: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2010.00726.
Bittman, M., England, P., Sayer, L. C., Folbre, N., & Matheson, G. (2003). When does gender trump money? Bargaining and time in household work. American Journal of Sociology, 109, 186-214.
Bobé, N., Trobat, M. & Sampietro, M. C. (2008). Encuesta de Calidad de vida en el trabajo. Departament de Treball, Institut d´Estadística de Catalunya. Santander, España.
Castro-Solano, A. (2010). Fundamentos de Psicología Positiva. Buenos Aires: Paidós
Clark, A. E. (2001). What really matters in a job? Hedonic measurement using quit data. Labour Econnomics, 8, 223-242.
Cropanzano, R. & Wright, T. A. (2001). When a “happy” worker is a “productive” worker: A review and further refinement of the happy-productive worker thesis. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 53, 182-199.
Cropanzano, R., Rupp, D. E., & Byrne, Z. S. (2003). The relationship of emotional exhaustion to work attitudes, job performance, and organizational citizenship behaviours. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(1), 160-169.
Craig, L. (2006). Does father care mean fathers share? A comparison of how mothers and fathers in intact families spend time with children. Gender & Society, 20, 259-281.
Christiansen, S. L. & Palkovitz, R. (2001). Why the ‘‘good provider’’ role still matters: Providing as a form of paternal involvement. Journal of Family Issues, 22, 84-106.
Dahl, S. A. Nesheim, T. & Olsen, K. M. (2009). Quality of Work—Concept and Measurement. REC-WP 05/2009; RECWOWE Publication, Dissemination and Dialogue Centre: Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, 2009. http://www.socialpolicy.ed.ac.uk/ __data/assets/pdf_file/0020/29720/REC-WP_0509_Dahl_Nesheim_Olsen.pdf.
Danna, K. & Griffin, R. W. (1999). Health and well-being in the workplace: A review and synthesis of the literature. Journal of Management, 25, 357-384.
De Miguel, A. & De Miguel, I. (2002). La Calidad de Vida laboral y organización del trabajo: informes y estudios. Madrid: Ministerio del Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales. Subdirección General de Publicaciones.
Diener, E., Sandvik, E., Seidlitz, L., & Diener, M. (1993). The relationship between income and subjective wellbeing: Relative or absolute? Social Indicators Research, 28, 195-223.
Drobnic, S. (2011). Introduction: Job quality and work-life balance. In S. Drobnic, & A. M. Guillén (Eds.), Work-life balance in Europe. The Role of job quality, pp. 1-14. Ed. Palgrave Macmillan, London UK.
Drobnic, S. (2016). Quality of (working) life and work-life balance. https://inclusivegrowth.be/downloads/calls/call-34-cee/day-3-sonja-drobnic-presentation.pdf
Esping-Andersen, G. & Myles, J. (2007). The Welfare State and Redistribution https://www.researchgate.net/publication/255583959_The_Welfare_State_and_Redistribution.
Eurofond (2016a). Equilibrio entre trabajo y la vida personal: crear soluciones para todos. Foundation FOCUS. 19, 1-19.
Eurofond (2016b). Sexta encuesta europea sobre las condiciones de trabajo. Informe General: Resumen ejecutivo https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/es/publications/executive-summary/2016/working-conditions/sixth-european-working-conditions-survey-overview-report-executive-summary.
Eurofound (2017). European Quality of Life Survey 2016: Quality of life, quality of public services, and quality of society, publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.
Eurofond (2018). Equilibrio entre la vida privada y la vida laboral. 16 July 2018. https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/es/topic/work-life-balance
Frey, B. & Stutzer, A. (2005). A happiness research: State and prospects. Review Social Economics, LXII, 207-228
Fahey, T., Nolan, B. & Whelan, C. (2003). Monitoring quality of life in Europe. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. Luxemburg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. htt://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/htmlfiles/ef02108.htm.
Fisher, V. E., & Hanna, J. V. (1931). The dissatisfied worker. New York: Macmillan.
Goode, D. A. (1989). Quality of life, quality of work life. In W. E. Kiernan & R. L. Schalock (Eds.), Economics, Industry and Disability: A Look Ahead, pp. 337-349. Paul H. Brookes, Baltimore. USA.
Greenhaus, J. H. & Beutell, N. J. (1985). Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Academy of Management Review, 10(1), 76-88.
Greenhaus, J. H., Collin, K. M., & Shaw, D. (2003). The relation between work–family balance and quality of life. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63(3), 510-531. DOI: 10.1016/S0001-8791 (02)00042-8.
Gropel, P. & Kuhl, J. (2009). Work-Life Balance and Subjective Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Need Fulfillment. British Journal of Psychology, 100(2), 365-375.
Hakim, C. (2000). Work-lifestyle Choices in the 21st century: Preference Theory. Oxford University.
Haller, M. & Haller, M. (2006). How social relations and structures can produce happiness and unhappiness: An international comparative analysis. Social Indicators Research. 75, l69-216.
Hillmer, S., Hillmer, B. & McRoberts, G. (2004). The real costs of turnover: Lessons from a call centre. Human Resource Planning, 27(3), 34-41.
Hansen, A. M., Hogh, A., Persson, R., Karlson, B., Garde, A. H. & Orbaek, P. (2006). Bullying at work, health outcomes, and physiological stress response. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60, 63-72.
Hobson, B. (2002). Introduction: Making Men into Fathers. In B. Hobson (Ed.), Men, Masculinities and the Social Politics of Fatherhood. pp. 1-24. Cambridge: University Press.
Hoem, B. (2000). Entry into motherhood in Sweden: the influence of economic factors on the rise and fall in fertility, 1986-1997. Demographic Research, 2(4). DOI: 10.4054/DemRes.2000.2.4.
Judge, T. A., Thoresen, C. J., Bono, J. E., & Patton, G. K. (2001). The job satisfaction-job performance relationship: A qualitative and quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 376-407.
Kapitány, B., Kovaks, K. & Krieger, H. (2005). European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Working and living in an enlarged Europe, Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities: http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/htmlfiles/ef0595.htm.
Kerce, E. W. & S. Booth-Kewley (1993). Quality of work life surveys in organizations: Methods and benefits. In Sage Focus (Eds.), Improving Organizational Surveys: New Directions, Methods, and Applications, pp. 188-209. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Kiriago, A. N. & Bwisa, H. M. (2013). Working Environment Factors that Affect Quality of Work Life among Attendants in Petrol Stations in Kitale Town in Kenya International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 3(5), 289-296.
Lehman, A. F. (1988). A quality of life interview for the chronically mental ill (QOLI). Evaluation and Program Planning, 11, 51-62.
Martel, J. M. & Dupuis, G. (2006). Quality of work life: theoretical and methodological problems and presentation of a new model and measuring instrument. Social Indicators Research. DOI 10.1007/s11205-004-5368-4.
Mattingly, M. J., & Bianchi, S. M. (2003). Gender differences in the quantity and quality of free time: The U.S. experience. Social Forces, 81, 999-1030.
Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales de España (1999). Encuesta de Calidad de Vida en el Trabajo. Madrid.
Pearlin, L. I. (1999). The stress process revisited: Reflections on concepts and their interrelationships. In C. S. Aneshensel & J. C. Phelan (Eds.), Handbook of the sociology of mental health, pp. 395-415. New York: Plenum.
Podder, H. & Poder, K. (2015). The societal context of significant others: comparative perceptions of mothers and fatherhood in Sweden, Finland and Estonia. European Scientific Journal, 11(11), 222-247.
Quilty, L. C., Van Ameringen, M., Mancini, C., Oakman, J., & Farvolden, P. (2003). Quality of life and anxiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 17, 405-426.
Sashkin, M. & W. W. Burke (1987). Organizational development in the 1980’s. Journal of Management, 13(2), 393-417.
Sirgy, M., Efraty, D., Siegel, P. & Lee, Dong-Jin (2001). A new measure of quality of working life (QWL) based on need satisfaction and spillover theories, Social Indicators Research, 55, 241–302.
Strand, M. & Nordenmark, M. (2003). Do Family friendly policies influence the costs of feing flexible? The interference of paid work with family life in different social policy contexts. In Wallace, C. (Ed.). HWF Survey Comparative Report volume 2: Thematic Papers, Vienna Institute for Advanced Studies. HWF Project.
Steffgen, G., Khol, D., Reese, G., Happ, Ch., & Sischka, P. (2015). Quality of Work: Validation of a new instrument in three languages. International Journal of Environment Research and Public Health, 12, 14988-15006. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph121214958.
Taylor-Gooby, P. (2004). New risks and social change. In Taylor-Gooby, P. (Ed.) New risks, new welfare: The transformation of the European welfare state, pp. 1-29. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Wallace, C., Pichler, F., & Hayes, B. C. (2007). First European quality of Life Survey: Quality of Work and life satisfaction. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/sites/default/files/ef_publication/field_ef_document/ef0695en.pdf.
Wright, T. A. (2005). The role of “happiness” in organizational research: Past, present and future directions. In P. L. Perrewe & D. C. Ganster (Eds.), Research in occupational stress and well-being, Vol. 4, pp. 225-268. Amsterdam: JAI Press.
Wright, T. A. & Bonett, D. G. (2007). Job satisfaction and Psychological well-being as non-additive predictors of workplace turnover. Journal of Management, 33(2), 141-160. DOI: 10.1177/0149206306297582.
Wright, T. A., Russell, C., & Bonett, D. G. (2007). The Moderating Role of Employee Positive Well Being on the Relation between Job Satisfaction and Job Performance. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12(2), 93-104. DOI: 10.1037/1076-8922.214.171.124.
Copyright (c) 2018 JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.