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KHALSA PUBLICATIONS en-US JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN NATURAL SCIENCES 2393-9257 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited..</p> Cyclic Hominid Evolution in A Moroccan-Algerian Coastal Refuge: The Last Million Years <p>To explain the abundance of species of genus <em>Homo</em> in the fossil record of Africa south of the Sahara, the small Moroccan-Algerian coastal zone that was isolated by the barren Sahara is proposed to have been a refuge in which cyclic evolution occurred. A dry climate in combination with a small population enabled natural selection to generate new sub species or species during each climate cycle. As generalized from the last two major glaciations, in each cycle three coastal zone climates of differing aridity occurred, depending on the latitudinal zonality of high latitude Gulf Stream flow. When initially isolated with minimal zonality (strong northward North Atlantic Drift of Gulf Stream water), the coastal climate was like today’s, with warm summers and mild winter rains. Subsequently during intervals of ice sheet growth with intermediate zonality (weaker Drift), winters were colder, the climate was drier, and the environmental stresses increased. Finally, with the quite strong or complete zonality associated with Northern Hemisphere deglaciations (little or no Drift), extreme aridity often reduced the inhabitable area of the coastal zone. When each Eurasian deglaciation was completed, the isolation was probably briefly interrupted, as it was in the mid Holocene, by a well-watered savanna that developed across the Sahara. The savannas enabled each small and genetically modified population to increase and extend its range southward into the larger Africa. The pulses of evolution are directly related to glacial cycles by way of Earth’s orbital eccentricity and precession of the equinox. The intervals of coastal zone isolation usually lasted almost 22,000 years, which is the time needed for the precession of the equinox to move summer around on Earth’s orbit from one perihelion point to the next where monsoons are strong, and deglaciation and the savannas tend to occur. However, isolations as long as ~76,000 years also are found in the record because Eurasian ice sheet growth sometimes resumed before deglaciation was complete. In the last million years there may have been at least 18 pluvial savanna intervals when populations of new species or sub species of hominids would have extended their range by expanding on the savanna into the larger Africa or Eurasia. Periodic pulses of evolution of primitive hominids probably also occurred much earlier in the Pliocene with brief savannas but without large Northern glaciations. Generation of new species of hominids in the coastal zone and their injection into the larger Africa by savanna connections may therefore have been largely responsible for the abundance of genus <em>Homo</em> and predecessors in the fossil record and for our own <em>Homo sapiens</em> that we know today.</p> Robert Glenn Johnson Andre Berger ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-20 2019-02-20 6 444 466 10.24297/jns.v6i0.7962 Scientific Substantiation of Introduction of Systems of Small-Intensive Irrigation Under Conditions of Mineral Farming in Azerbaijan <p>The study of the world experience and the results of long-term experiments with drip irrigation systems in the Republic in various climatic and soil conditions shows that the creation of irrigation systems of this type is effective and economically profitable when irrigation of various perennial plantations, vegetable, tilled crops, ornamental plantations, nurseries etc. Drip irrigation has almost universal application, in particular, it is applicable where other methods of irrigation can not be used or ineffective:</p> <ol> <li>With a complex relief and a large slope of the site (up to 45 degrees or more);</li> <li>In areas with prolonged droughts and constant strong winds;</li> <li>For local water sources with a relatively limited amount of water;</li> <li>On soils with low power and very low or high hygroscopicity;</li> <li>On soils prone to salinity;</li> <li>When used for irrigation of water with a high content of water-soluble salts, etc.</li> </ol> RAE. Z.H. Aliyev ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-20 2019-02-20 6 467 474 10.24297/jns.v6i0.8117 Scientific Rationale for The Use of Low-Intensity Sprinkling Systems in Mountain Irrigated Agriculture in Azerbaijan <p>The results of the study revealed that the mismatch intensity rain rate of water absorption into the soil formation of a surface relief and soil erosion, uneven and shallow soaking imperfection open irrigation system at a superficial irrigation, the need for different irrigation methods in the growing and not growing periods, low coefficient land utilization, high cost of irrigation and other features are, to a certain extent in conflict with the requirements of watering cultivated with techniques for / of crops in an area at the deep groundwater</p> RAE. Z.H. Aliyev ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-20 2019-02-20 6 475 483 10.24297/jns.v6i0.8118