JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES An open access, scholarly, online, peer-reviewed, monthly, fully refereed International journal. en-US <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> <p>The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations. The submitting author is responsible for securing any permissions needed for the reuse of copyrighted materials included in the manuscript.</p> <p>While the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate on the date of its going to press, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.</p> (Chief Editor) (Editorial Support Team) Mon, 27 Nov 2017 06:23:21 +0000 OJS 60 FLEXURAL STRENGTHENING OF REINFORCED HPC BEAMS INCORPORATED WITH BY-PRODUCTS <p>High performance concrete (HPC) shows better performance when compared to conventional concrete. The concrete having industrial by-products of silica fume, bottom ash and steel slag aggregate distinguished that the structural manner of reinforced concrete beams related to cracking behaviour and load strain manner is investigated in the present study. The beams were designed to have concrete strength of cube compression was 30 – 40 N/mm<sup>2</sup><sub>. </sub>The cracking behaviour, strain distribution and ductility have been studied throughout their flexural loading range, and their mode of failure.</p> T. Subbulakshmi, B. Vidivelli ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 27 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +0000 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF MEASURES TO CARE CULTURES OF BLACK PINE (Lat. Pinus Nigra) <p>Cleaning the lower (ground) parts of a tree branch is an important measure of the breeding in&nbsp; terms of technology and&nbsp; economics. This measure of care is provided by the high quality of the first tree and reciprocal to&nbsp; the higher income. The authors examine the technical and technological components, and economic effects, highlighting the specificity of the translation results in a tree, in particular.</p> Severin Šikanja ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 27 Nov 2017 06:14:59 +0000 CLIMATE CHANGE CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR NON-CONVENTIONAL WATER USE FOR AGRICULTURE IN PALESTINE <p>Agriculture is a very important sector in the Palestinian economy, it contributes about 8.1% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). However, it is the dominant user of water. Water is the main obstacle facing extending of irrigating agriculture. While Climate change represents new growing challenge for Palestinians through its effects on agricultural productivity and water insecurity. It is likely to alter patterns of water availability, thus adding to the existing restrictions on Palestinian water access imposed by the Israeli side. There is an urgent need for new alternative water resources for agricultural use to alleviate the mounting pressure on drinking water resources. Non-conventional water such as the moderately saline water which is available in the Jericho and Jordan Valley in the Eastern part of the West Bank, and the treated wastewater - represent such alternative resources. However, this needs appropriate policies and research. The contribution will discuss the current status of water and agriculture in addition to climate change challenges that alter the two sectors in two Palestinian Governorates: Jericho and Qalqiliya.</p> Sameer Bsharat, Zaher Barghouthi, Saed Khayat, Abdallah Alimari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 18 Dec 2017 12:53:04 +0000