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KHALSA PUBLICATIONS en-US JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY 2348-6201 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> Annual Reviewer Acknowledgement <p>The Editorial team of the journal would like to thank the reviewers for their work in referring manuscripts during 2018.</p> Kewen Zhao ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-31 2018-08-31 7 The Pathways Involved in TLQP-62 Mediated Biological Functions <p>VGF is neurosecretory protein, belongs to the extendedgranin family of proteins, originallyrecognized as a nerve growth factor (NGF) inducible gene product. It is selectively synthesized mostly in neuronal and neuroendocrine cells. It has a very simple organization. It has several biologically active peptides, described as VGF-derived peptides including APPG-40, APPG-37, GRPE-37, NERP-1, NERP-2, NAPP-129 (VGF 20), VGF 18, HFHH-51 (VGF 6), HHPD-1, AQEE-30 (Peptide V), LQEQ-19, TLQP-21 and TLQP-62 (VGF 10). Among these peptides TLQP-62 is of great significance because of its several remarkable biological effects like regulation of memory formation, glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion, gene transcription, neurogenesis, etc. Although in light of these outstanding behavioral and physiological roles, very few information are available regarding its mode of action. Still, no receptor has been found for TLQP-62 mediated cascading pathways. However, considering the significant biological function of TLQP-62, this review study was done to summarize the pathways involved in TLQP-62 mediated action, based on the information till now. TLQP-62 activates signal transduction cascades by two mechanisms including opening of the calcium channels and modulating the AMPK, PKC and ERK pathways. These events result in an increase in intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> concentration which permits the secretion of insulin. TLQP-62 would be a significant therapeutics and drug discovery tool for a wide range of diseases to which the peptide related, if TLQP-62 mediated pathways are known, as a whole.</p> Md. Shamim Akhter Jojon Arif ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-27 2018-02-27 7 953 966 10.24297/jbt.v7i1.6749 Phytochemical And Proximate Compositions of Tetracarpidium Conophorum [African Walnut] Seeds. <p>A sample of boiled&nbsp;<em>Tetracarpidiumconophorum</em> (African &nbsp;walnut) seeds was analyzed for the phytochemical and proximate compositions. The result of the phytochemical [qualitative] screeningrevealed the presence of high concentrations of Alkaloids and Steroids, and moderate concentration of Tannins. There were no traces of Saponins, Phlobotannins, Flavonoids, Phenols and Glycosides. The proximate analysis showed that the boiled seeds contained 5.5% moisture, 19.3% carbohydrate, 17.9% protein, 53.4% crude fat, 1.24% crude fiberand 2.67% ash. Data from thisstudy showedthat theboiled <em>Tetracarpidiumconophorum</em> seeds contain some bioactive compounds and have good nutritional composition. They could be useful in pharmaceutical formulations and as food.</p> Uchechukwu Chikezie Nkeiruka Yvonne ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-28 2018-02-28 7 967 974 10.24297/jbt.v7i1.6411 Carica Papaya; A Paired and Alternative Therapy of Dengue Fever <p>The purpose f the study is to explore the prospective use of <em>Carica papaya</em> leaves extracts for Dengue fever that is a painful, debilitating mosquito-borne disease caused by dengue viruses. An estimated 390 million dengue infections occur worldwide each year, with about 96 million resulting in illness. It has been found at height in developing nations like India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.&nbsp;Mostly tropical areas have been reported infected. The disease is transmitted by an Aedes mosquito infected with a dengue virus; interestingly it is not transferred from person to person. Symptoms are mild to serious &nbsp;including hemorrhagic fever; a rare complication characterized by high fever, damage to lymph and blood vessels, bleeding from the nose and gums, enlargement of the liver, and failure of the circulatory system and it can cause the death. All the symptoms of disease are due to low platelets count that may become very low if not managed. Consequently the research reveals that juice of the leaves of the&nbsp;<em>Carica papaya</em>&nbsp;plant from the family Caricaceae help to increase the platelet levels. The present review is done to enlighten the theory of the management of dengue through this alternative therapy that can be implement along with conventional treatment. The covered researches in present study would raise and support the possibility of being, the remedy and significant alternative in the prospect.</p> Shagufta Nesar Kiran Rafiq Omer Sarwat Rizvi Aatka Ali Tayyaba Mumtaz Mohammad Shair Ali Usmani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-05 2018-03-05 7 975 983 10.24297/jbt.v7i1.6831 Development, Optimisation, Validation and Inter-Laboratory Verification of a Reversed Phase HPLC Method for Quantification of Human Recombinant Insulin <p>HPLC methods for insulin in official monographs require extended runtimes and elevated temperatures. Inter-laboratory reproducibility of HPLC methods obtained from published literature is an on-going challenge, moreso for peptides. This paper serves as a step-by step guide to troubleshoot and establish a validated HPLC method for insulin at room temperature using simple UV detectors with minimal run times. A modified gradient reversed-phase HPLC was developed for the quantification of recombinant human insulin with UV detection at room temperature.&nbsp; An octadecylsilica column was used as the stationary phase while the mobile phase consisted of solution A: 1mmol sodium sulphate and 0.2% triethylamine in water and solution B: acetonitrile. The developed method was then validated using International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 10-1000 µg/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.9993, with average recovery percent of 100.89 ± 1.4% and RSD recovery of 0.01. Insulin retention time was 3.84 ± 0.08 mins, while LOD and LOQ were estimated at 0.63 and 2.0 µg/mL respectively. The developed method conformed to the validation criteria of the ICH guidelines in our laboratories and other independent operator laboratories, and can serve as a rapid and effective method for quantifying insulin from any sample at room temperature using simple detectors.</p> Affiong Iyire Craig Russell Tom Dennison Rajith Rajoli Imran Saleem Ayesha Rahman Afzal Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-27 2018-03-27 7 984 998 10.24297/jbt.v7i1.7192 Organic Compounds Generated in Bioethanol Production from Agave Bagasse <p>In bioethanol production through lignocellulosic residues fermentations are generated by-products such as organic compounds (OCs). The organic compounds (OCs) had been well studied in wine and beer industry, but little is known about their presence in bioethanol industry, even when these affect yeasts physiologic state, and are considered as economically desirable in the chemical industry. In this work was evaluated the production of OCs in bioethanol production processes through separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of different agave bagasse residue (ABR). Fermentations were carried out by the <em>Kluyveromyces marxianus</em>SLP1, <em>K. marxianus </em>OFF1 and <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>Ethanol Red yeasts strains. The main OCs detected were ethyl acetate, methanol, 1-propanol, isobutanol, butanol, isoamyl-alcohol, ethyl-lactate, furfuryl-alcohol, phenyl-acetate, and 2-phenyl ethanol. A higher number of OCs was found in the SSF process when were used the <em>K. marxianus</em>OFF1 and SLP1 yeasts. This study provides better knowledge of the kind and concentrations of OCs produced by fermentation of the lignocellulosic ABR, which allow propose bioethanol by-products as potential source of economically desirable compounds.</p> Jorge A. Meji­a-Barajas, PhD Melchor Arellano Plaza, PhD Belem Vargas Ochoa, MSc Rafael Salgado Garciglia, PhD Jesús Campos García, PhD Alfredo Saavedra Molina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-03 2018-05-03 7 999 110 10.24297/jbt.v7i1.7338 Effects of Different Paclobutrazol-Cultar Concentrations on the Micropropagation of Sugarcane (Saccharum Officinarum) Variety CPCL99-4455 <p>Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), being an important cash crop in Belize, accounts for 60% of agricultural exports providing employment for thousands of Belizeans. This research was carried out to determine the effects of different Paclobutrazol (PBZ-Cultar) concentrations used in the culture media on in vitro multiplication of sugarcane variety CPCL99-4455. Three PBZ-Cultar concentrations were tested and compared with the control. The parameters evaluated to determine the effects of PBZ-Cultar were average height, number of dead leaves and multiplication coefficient. The plants from this experiment were planted in the acclimatization phase to determine if the use of PBZ-Cultar had any effect of the growth and development of the plants ex vitro. The results revealed that the culture medium supplemented with 0.08% PBZ-Cultar concentration had the best results both in the multiplication phase as well as the acclimatization phase.</p> Dion Daniels Nidia Panti David Guerra Stephen Williams ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-30 2018-08-30 7 1011 1018 10.24297/jbt.v7i1.7567 Isolation and Optimization of Lipid Production from Drechslera Sp. and Feasibility of using Orange Peel as a Substrate for Growth <p>This study deals with isolation and optimization of soil origin fungus Drechslera sp. with valued unsaturated fatty acids using orange peel as a substrate. Accordingly, to maximize oil production, various parameters were optimized using 'one variable at a time' strategy followed by employing statistical designs (Plackett-Burman (PBD) &amp; Response surface methodology (RSM)). The results showed that incubation time, FeSO<sub>4</sub>, pH and yeast extract were the most significant factors influencing lipid accumulation. Therefore, RSM employed to optimize their concentrations. The optimum parameter values were:&nbsp; incubation time 144 h, FeSO<sub>4</sub> 0.015 g/L, pH 8.5 and yeast extract 2 g/L. Under the optimized conditions, a total biomass of 12 g/L with a lipid content of 40.75 % (corresponding to a lipid yield of 4.89 g/L) was achieved. The fatty acid profile revealed production of 41.99 % of unsaturated fatty acids. The feasibility of utilizing orange peel as a sole carbon source proved that it represents a potentially valuable source of single cell oil (SCO) with oil yield of 3.65 g/L. Its FAME profile revealed an increment of unsaturated fatty acids up to 58.86% with desirable amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) 33.31 %, this making it as ideal substrate for production of unsaturated fatty acids.</p> Hadeel Said El-Shall ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-30 2018-08-30 7 1019 1043 10.24297/jbt.v7i1.7589