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CIRWORLD en-US JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY 2348-6201 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> <p>The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations. The submitting author is responsible for securing any permissions needed for the reuse of copyrighted materials included in the manuscript.</p> <p>While the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate on the date of its going to press, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.</p> The Pathways Involved In Tlqp-62 Mediated Biological Functions https://cirworld.com/index.php/jbt/article/view/6749 <p>VGF is neurosecretory protein, belongs to the extendedgranin family of proteins, originallyrecognized as a nerve growth factor (NGF) inducible gene product. It is selectively synthesized mostly in neuronal and neuroendocrine cells. It has a very simple organization. It has several biologically active peptides, described as VGF-derived peptides including APPG-40, APPG-37, GRPE-37, NERP-1, NERP-2, NAPP-129 (VGF 20), VGF 18, HFHH-51 (VGF 6), HHPD-1, AQEE-30 (Peptide V), LQEQ-19, TLQP-21 and TLQP-62 (VGF 10). Among these peptides TLQP-62 is of great significance because of its several remarkable biological effects like regulation of memory formation, glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion, gene transcription, neurogenesis, etc. Although in light of these outstanding behavioral and physiological roles, very few information are available regarding its mode of action. Still, no receptor has been found for TLQP-62 mediated cascading pathways. However, considering the significant biological function of TLQP-62, this review study was done to summarize the pathways involved in TLQP-62 mediated action, based on the information till now. TLQP-62 activates signal transduction cascades by two mechanisms including opening of the calcium channels and modulating the AMPK, PKC and ERK pathways. These events result in an increase in intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> concentration which permits the secretion of insulin. TLQP-62 would be a significant therapeutics and drug discovery tool for a wide range of diseases to which the peptide related, if TLQP-62 mediated pathways are known, as a whole.</p> Md Shamim Akhter Jojon Arif ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-02-27 2018-02-27 7 1 953 966 10.24297/jbt.v7i1.6749 Phytochemical And Proximate Compositions of Tetracarpidium Conophorum [African Walnut] Seeds. https://cirworld.com/index.php/jbt/article/view/6411 <p>A sample of boiled&nbsp;<em>Tetracarpidiumconophorum</em> (African &nbsp;walnut) seeds was analyzed for the phytochemical and proximate compositions. The result of the phytochemical [qualitative] screeningrevealed the presence of high concentrations of Alkaloids and Steroids, and moderate concentration of Tannins. There were no traces of Saponins, Phlobotannins, Flavonoids, Phenols and Glycosides. The proximate analysis showed that the boiled seeds contained 5.5% moisture, 19.3% carbohydrate, 17.9% protein, 53.4% crude fat, 1.24% crude fiberand 2.67% ash. Data from thisstudy showedthat theboiled <em>Tetracarpidiumconophorum</em> seeds contain some bioactive compounds and have good nutritional composition. They could be useful in pharmaceutical formulations and as food.</p> Uchechukwu Chikezie Nkeiruka Yvonne ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-02-28 2018-02-28 7 1 967 974 10.24297/jbt.v7i1.6411 Carica papaya; A Paired and Alternative Therapy of Dengue Fever https://cirworld.com/index.php/jbt/article/view/6831 <p>The purpose f the study is to explore the prospective use of <em>Carica papaya</em> leaves extracts for Dengue fever that is a painful, debilitating mosquito-borne disease caused by dengue viruses. An estimated 390 million dengue infections occur worldwide each year, with about 96 million resulting in illness. It has been found at height in developing nations like India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.&nbsp;Mostly tropical areas have been reported infected. The disease is transmitted by an Aedes mosquito infected with a dengue virus; interestingly it is not transferred from person to person. Symptoms are mild to serious &nbsp;including hemorrhagic fever; a rare complication characterized by high fever, damage to lymph and blood vessels, bleeding from the nose and gums, enlargement of the liver, and failure of the circulatory system and it can cause the death. All the symptoms of disease are due to low platelets count that may become very low if not managed. Consequently the research reveals that juice of the leaves of the&nbsp;<em>Carica papaya</em>&nbsp;plant from the family Caricaceae help to increase the platelet levels. The present review is done to enlighten the theory of the management of dengue through this alternative therapy that can be implement along with conventional treatment. The covered researches in present study would raise and support the possibility of being, the remedy and significant alternative in the prospect.</p> Shagufta Nesar Kiran Rafiq Omer Sarwat Rizvi Aatka Ali Tayyaba Mumtaz Mohammad Shair Ali Usmani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-05 2018-03-05 7 1 975 983 10.24297/jbt.v7i1.6831 Development, Optimisation, Validation and Inter-Laboratory Verification of a Reversed Phase HPLC Method for Quantification of Human Recombinant Insulin https://cirworld.com/index.php/jbt/article/view/7192 <p>HPLC methods for insulin in official monographs require extended runtimes and elevated temperatures. Inter-laboratory reproducibility of HPLC methods obtained from published literature is an on-going challenge, moreso for peptides. This paper serves as a step-by step guide to troubleshoot and establish a validated HPLC method for insulin at room temperature using simple UV detectors with minimal run times. A modified gradient reversed-phase HPLC was developed for the quantification of recombinant human insulin with UV detection at room temperature.&nbsp; An octadecylsilica column was used as the stationary phase while the mobile phase consisted of solution A: 1mmol sodium sulphate and 0.2% triethylamine in water and solution B: acetonitrile. The developed method was then validated using International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 10-1000 µg/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.9993, with average recovery percent of 100.89 ± 1.4% and RSD recovery of 0.01. Insulin retention time was 3.84 ± 0.08 mins, while LOD and LOQ were estimated at 0.63 and 2.0 µg/mL respectively. The developed method conformed to the validation criteria of the ICH guidelines in our laboratories and other independent operator laboratories, and can serve as a rapid and effective method for quantifying insulin from any sample at room temperature using simple detectors.</p> Affiong Iyire Craig Russell Tom Dennison Rajith Rajoli Imran Saleem Ayesha Rahman Afzal Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-27 2018-03-27 7 1 984 998 10.24297/jbt.v7i1.7192 Organic Compounds Generated in Bioethanol Production from Agave Bagasse https://cirworld.com/index.php/jbt/article/view/7338 <p>In bioethanol production through lignocellulosic residues fermentations are generated by-products such as organic compounds (OCs). The organic compounds (OCs) had been well studied in wine and beer industry, but little is known about their presence in bioethanol industry, even when these affect yeasts physiologic state, and are considered as economically desirable in the chemical industry. In this work was evaluated the production of OCs in bioethanol production processes through separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of different agave bagasse residue (ABR). Fermentations were carried out by the <em>Kluyveromyces marxianus</em>SLP1, <em>K. marxianus </em>OFF1 and <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>Ethanol Red yeasts strains. The main OCs detected were ethyl acetate, methanol, 1-propanol, isobutanol, butanol, isoamyl-alcohol, ethyl-lactate, furfuryl-alcohol, phenyl-acetate, and 2-phenyl ethanol. A higher number of OCs was found in the SSF process when were used the <em>K. marxianus</em>OFF1 and SLP1 yeasts. This study provides better knowledge of the kind and concentrations of OCs produced by fermentation of the lignocellulosic ABR, which allow propose bioethanol by-products as potential source of economically desirable compounds.</p> Jorge A. Mejía-Barajas, PhD Melchor Arellano-Plaza, PhD Belem Vargas-Ochoa, MSc Rafael Salgado-Garciglia, PhD Jesús Campos-García, PhD Alfredo Saavedra-Molina ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-05-03 2018-05-03 7 1 999 110 10.24297/jbt.v7i1.7338