JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY 2017-12-29T16:00:45+00:00 Chief Editor Open Journal Systems An open access, scholarly, online, peer-reviewed, monthly, fully refereed International journal. Technical sheet of influence of Freeze-Dried Yeast Starter Cultures on Volatile Compounds of Tchapalo, a Traditional Sorghum Beer from Côte d’Ivoire 2017-06-20T05:09:43+00:00 COULIBALY Wahauwouélé Hermann BOUATENIN Koffi Maizan Jean-Paul KOUAME Kohi Alfred RIGOU Peggy <p>The production of the Ivorian sorghum beer known as tchapalo remains more or less an empirical process. The use of starter cultures was therefore suggested as the appropriate approach to alleviate the problems of variations inorganoleptic quality and microbiological stability. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of <em>S. cerevisiae</em> and <em>C. tropicalis</em> to produce sorghum beer as freeze-dried starter in mixed or pure cultures. Beers produced with mixed freeze-dried cultures of <em>S. cerevisiae</em> F12-7 and <em>C. tropicalis</em> C0-7 showed residual sugars and ethanol contents similar to beers obtained with S. cerevisiae F12-7 pure culture, but the total sum of organic acids analyzed was the highest with the mixed culture (15.71 g/L). Higher alcohols were quantitatively the largest group of volatile compounds detected in beers. Among these compounds, 2-phenyl ethanol, a higher alcohol that plays an important role in beer flavor, was highly produced with the mixed culture (10174.8 µg/L) than with the pure culture (8749.9 µg/L).</p> 2017-06-20T05:08:55+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Hemoglobin A1C as an indicator of the accuracy of blood glucose measurement: comparative study of three technologies used for blood glucose measurements 2017-08-09T05:45:16+00:00 Hassan Almarshad <h1>In previous studies, the accuracy of glucose measurements were found with significant variations in different self-monitoring devices. This study suggests Hemoglobin a1c (Hba1c) to be used as as an indicator for the accuracy of blood-glucose monitoring devices. In this study, the association between the readings of glycohematoglobin HbA1C and the hyperglycemic readings of thirty hyperglycemic patients is used as an indicator of the accuracy of three types of glucometer devices. The association between hyperglycemic readings and the percentage of HbA1C for the same patients was investigated. The results showed significant association between levels of blood glucose and the percentage of HbA1C in three devices with statistically significant ( p &lt; 0.05). Such relationship is suggested to be used as a relative accuracy of various types of blood glucose self-monitoring devices. </h1> 2017-08-09T05:45:16+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Chitosans from Rhizopus stolonifer (strain CBMAI 1551): Characterization and Dense Film Formation 2017-10-31T07:43:31+00:00 Douglas Henrique Cardoso Thiago Ferreira da Conceição Admir Jose Giachini Marcio Jose Rossi <p>Chitosan is a bioactive amino polymer with wide applications. Mainly derived from chitin of marine sources, its traditional production still has some drawbacks such as irregular supply, low quality of product and lack of standardization. Farther, extraction processes are time-consuming with considerable environmental impacts, an extremely non-green process. Many works have shown the possibility of producing native chitosan from Mucorales fungi, which is more easily extracted. Such process is advantageous due to low costs, process control and great possibility of high quality products. Moreover, the extraction of chitosan is faster and generates less pollutants. In this scenario, the possibility of standardized production allied with facilitated extraction and less probability of toxicological side effects from marine sources are characteristics that motivated this work. A Mucorales isolate was cultured and the chitosans – native and semi-synthetic – obtained through heterogeneous extraction were compared. Results show substantial differences between them. Those differences are related to the processes required for extraction, yield, productivity, and quality. This work reinforces that Mucorales fungi excel as an alternative for chitosan production.</p> 2017-10-31T07:32:08+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Alterations in Proteins and Amino Acids of the Cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans in Response to Different Inorganic Formulations 2017-12-29T15:42:04+00:00 Gajendra Kumar Gajendra Pal Singh <p><em>Anacystis </em><em>nidulans </em>is a small, rod-shaped, unicellular, colonial, obligatory phototrophic microalga isolated from Sambhar Lake, Jaipur (Rajasthan). To find out the best inorganic composition cultures were grown in five different defined inorganic medium such as Modified BG-11 medium (pH 7.31), BG-11 medium (7.1), CHU-10 (pH 7.65), Zarrouk’s medium (pH 10.2) and Kratz &amp; Myer medium (pH 9.5) and kept at the temperature of 25 ± 2°C, illuminated with white fluorescent lamps at a light intensity of 2.5 Klux with 12:12 hours light/dark photoperiod in departmental laboratory. Protein content is determined by Bradford assay and qualitatively by SDS-PAGE. Protein expression levels were determined through densitometry. Highest protein and amino acid content were obtained in Modified BG-11 medium as compared to other medium. Two polypeptides of 54.3 and 56.2 kDa were uniquely observed, but the genotype of 35.8 kDa polypeptide was completely degraded under Modified BG-11 inorganic formulation. 35.8, 54.3, 56.2 and 61.8 kDa polypeptides were completely degraded in Zarrouk’s as well as Kratz and Myer medium. The expression of some polypeptides of 14.0, 34.1, 42.3, 45.9, 49.5 and 75.0 kDa were greatly reduced and expressed only 1mm level in Zarrouk’s and Kratz and Myer medium. Quantity of free amino acids maximum was in Modified BG-11 medium and minimum was in the Kratz and Myer Medium. Total 17amino acids were observed in the HPLC chromatogram. No detectable amount of asparagine, glutamine and tryptophan were found throughout the course of the algal life cycle</p> 2017-12-29T15:42:04+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Extraction and Characterization of Chitin and Chitosan from Aspergillus niger, Synthesis of Silver-Chitosan Nanocomposites and Evaluation of their Antimicrobial Potential 2017-12-29T15:39:57+00:00 KN Madhusudhan <p>The fungal species such as <em>Aspergillus niger</em> are the rich source of antimicrobial compounds. The chitin which is the cell wall component are being isolated and used as potential source of antimicrobial along with its derivates. In the present study, the chitin and chitosan were purified from the mycelial mat of the <em>A. niger</em>. By using the chitosan isolated from the fungi, the chitosan-silver nanocomposite was synthesized under lab conditions. The comparative antibacterial potential of chitin, chitosan and nanocomposites were screened against <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> and <em>Bacillus cereus</em>, which are infecting mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori) and humans respectively. The <em>in vitro</em> inhibition study results revealed that, Nanocomposites showed more inhibition of pathogens in comparison with other treatments along with positive control.&nbsp; Further, the highest antibacterial activity of chitosan-silver nanocomposites may be due to presence of two potential antimicrobial compounds in combination. Based on the results of the present study, chitosan based nanocomposites can be used for the management of the bacterial diseases of silkworm. The nanocomposite derived in the present work can be used for management of medically important pathogens infecting humans.</p> 2017-12-29T15:39:57+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## BIOSYNTHESIS OF pH RESPONSIVE SHAPE MEMORY HYDROGEL AND ITS BIOMEDICAL POTENTIAL 2017-12-29T16:00:45+00:00 AHMAD MOHAMMED GUMEL <p>Multifunctional hydrogels combining the capabilities of cellular pH responsiveness and shape memory, are highly promising for the realization of smart membrane filters, controlled drug released devices, and functional tissue-engineering scaffolds. Free radical biocatalytic polymerization catalyzed by immobilized <em>Candida antarctica</em> lipase B was used to fabricate the pH-responsive and shape memory hydrogel using medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates-co-polyethylene glycol methacrylate (PHA-PEGMA) as macromer. The accelerative wound healing potential of the biosynthesized smart PHA based hydrogel was evaluated herein. The thermal stability of the macromere highly depends on the PEGMA fraction from 10 to 50% (mass). Similarly, the change in PEGMA fraction was also found to highly influence the hydrogel’s hydration rate (<em>r</em>) from 2.83 x 10<sup>-5</sup> to 7.63&nbsp; x 10<sup>-5</sup>&nbsp; mL/s.&nbsp; The hydrogel’s equilibrium weight swelling ratio (qe), protein release and its diffusion coefficient (Dm) were all found to be pH dependent. For example, increasing the phosphate buffer pH from 2.4 to 13 resulted in increased qe from 2 to 16 corresponding to the enlarging of network pore size (ξ) from 150 to 586 nm.The biomedical potential of the synthesized material based on its accelerative wound healing in rats was observed. Biochemical, histomorphometric and immunohistomorphometric analyses revealed a significant difference in area closure and re-epithelialization on days 7 and 14 in PPH or Intrasite® gel group compared to gum acacia or PEGMA-alone groups. Furthermore, wounds dressed with PPH or Intrasite® gel showed evident collagen deposition, enhanced fibrosis and extensively organized angiogenesis on day 14 compared to the negative control group. The findings suggested that topical application of PPH accelerated the rats’ wound healing process by improving angiogenesis attributed to the increased microvessel density (MVD) and expressions of VEGF-A in tissue samples. Thus, PPH has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of cutaneous wounds in rats, and could be a potential novel agent in the management and acceleration of wound healing in humans and animals.</p> 2017-12-29T16:00:45+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##