Technical sheet of inﬂuence of Freeze-Dried Yeast Starter Cultures on Volatile Compounds of Tchapalo, a Traditional Sorghum Beer from Côte d’Ivoire
The production of the Ivorian sorghum beer known as tchapalo remains more or less an empirical process. The use of starter cultures was therefore suggested as the appropriate approach to alleviate the problems of variations inorganoleptic quality and microbiological stability. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of S. cerevisiae and C. tropicalis to produce sorghum beer as freeze-dried starter in mixed or pure cultures. Beers produced with mixed freeze-dried cultures of S. cerevisiae F12-7 and C. tropicalis C0-7 showed residual sugars and ethanol contents similar to beers obtained with S. cerevisiae F12-7 pure culture, but the total sum of organic acids analyzed was the highest with the mixed culture (15.71 g/L). Higher alcohols were quantitatively the largest group of volatile compounds detected in beers. Among these compounds, 2-phenyl ethanol, a higher alcohol that plays an important role in beer ﬂavor, was highly produced with the mixed culture (10174.8 µg/L) than with the pure culture (8749.9 µg/L).
 Holzapfel, W.H. 2002. Appropriate starter culture technologies for small-scale fermentation in developing countries. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 75, 197–212.
 Van der Aa, K.A.; Jespersen, L.; Glover, R.L.K.; Diawara, B.; Jakobsen, M. 2001. Identiﬁcation and characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from West African sorghum beer. Yeast, 18, 1069–1079.
 N’guessan, K.F.; Brou, K.; Noemie, J.; Casaregola, S.; Djè, K.M. 2011. Identiﬁcation of yeasts during alcoholic fermentation of tchapalo, a traditional sorghum beer from Côte d’Ivoire. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 99, 855–864.
 Hubalek, Z. 2003. Protectants used in the cryopreservation of microorganisms. Cryobiology, 46, 205–229.
 N’Guessan, F.K.; Coulibaly, H.W.; Alloue-Boraud, M.W.; Cot, M.; Djè, K.M. 2016. Production of freeze-dried yeast culture for the brewing of traditional sorghum beer, tchapalo. FoodSci. Nutr. 4, 34–41.
 Dufour, J.-P.; Malcorps, P.; Silcock, P. 2003. Control of ester synthesis during brewery fermentation. In Brewing Yeast Fermentation Performance; Blackwell Publishing: Hoboken, NJ, USA, pp. 213–233.
 Estela-Escalante, W.D.; Rosales-Mendoza, S.; Moscosa-Santillán, M.; González-Ramírez, J.E. 2016. Evaluation of the fermentative potential of Candida zemplinina yeasts for craft beer fermentation. J.Inst. Brew. 122, 530–535.
 Lambrechts, M.G.; Pretorius, I.S. 2000. Yeasts and its importance to wine aroma—A review. S.Afr. J.Enol. Vitic. 21, 97–129.
 Canonico, L.; Agarbati, A.;Comitini, F.; Ciani, M. 2016. Torulaspora delbrueckii in the brewing process: A new approach to enhance bioﬂavour and to reduce ethanol content. Food Microbiol. 56, 45–51.
 Michel, M.; Kopecká, J.; Meier-Dörnberg, T.; Zarnkow, M.; Jacob, F.; Hutzler, M. 2016. Screening for new brewing yeasts in the non-Saccharomyces sector with Torulaspora delbrueckii as model. Yeast, 33,129–144.
 Rojas, V.; Gil, J.V.; Pinaga, F.; Manzanares, P. 2003. Acetate ester formation in wine by mixed cultures in laboratory fermentations. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 86, 181–188.
 Moreira, N.; Mendes, F.; dePinho, P.G.; Hogg, T.; Vasconcelos, I. 2008. Heavy Sulphur compounds, higher alcohols and esters production proﬁle of Hansenispora uvarum and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii grown as pure and mixed cultures in grape must. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 124, 231–238.
 Comitini, F.; Gobbi, M.; Domizio, P.; Romani, C.; Lencioni, L.; Mannazzu, I.; Ciani, M. 2011. Selected non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts in controlled multistarter fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Food Microbiol. 28, 873–888.
 Lee, P.R.; Saputra, A.; Yu,B.; Curran, P.; Liu, S.Q. 2012. Effects of pure and mixed-cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Williopsissaturnus on the volatile proﬁles of grape wine. Food Biotechnol. 26, 307–325.
Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.
The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations. The submitting author is responsible for securing any permissions needed for the reuse of copyrighted materials included in the manuscript.
While the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate on the date of its going to press, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.