JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS
https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap
scientific, open access, scholarly, peer-reviewed, fully referred international journal with DOI, ISSN ICV and IFen-US<p><a href="https://cirworld.com/cir/copyright-notice/" target="_blank">Copyright Notice</a></p>jap@cirworld.com (Chief Editor)editor@cirworld.com (Editorial Support Team)Mon, 03 Jul 2017 04:43:55 +0000OJS 3.0.2.0http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss60 Testing and Applications of Non-Linear Wave Shaping Circuits Based on Zener Diodes at Cryogenic Temperatures
https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/6164
<p> Applications of wave-shaping clipping circuits based on Zener diodes are of great interest in a wide range of modern electronic systems. As well, given the strong interest in space research and trips to distant planets, where the journey takes long periods. Therefore, the matter requires reliance on electronic systems with special specifications commensurate with the nature of the extremely low-temperature environments, down to cryogenic level (around 90 K). So, the present paper was concerned with studying the stability of the performance of different non-linear wave-shaping systems, based on silicon Zener diodes, whenever operates at very low temperatures down to cryogenic levels. From which, it is clear that for BZX79-C4V7 and BZX79-C5V6 Zeners, such electronic systems were shown to be insensitive to temperature variations. On the other hand, low breakdown voltage Zeners (BZV86-1V4 and BZX83-C3V6), the clipping edges were shown to be increased with lowering temperatures from 300 K down to 93 K. Finally, for Zener diodes with V<sub>Z</sub> greater than 6.0 V (BZX83-C6V8 and BZX55C9V1), the temperature coefficient is positive, so the clipping edges decrease with lowering temperatures, for the same range of temperatures.</p>A. M. Abd El-Maksood
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https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/6164Mon, 03 Jul 2017 04:39:53 +0000 Analytical Investigation of Projectile Motion in Midair
https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/6167
<p>Here is studied a classic problem of the motion of a projectile thrown at an angle to the horizon. The air drag force is taken into account as the quadratic resistance law. An analytic approach is used for the investigation. Equations of the projectile motion are solved analytically. All the basic functional dependencies of the problem are described by elementary functions. There is no need for to study the problem numerically. The found analytical solutions are highly accurate over a wide range of parameters. The motion of a baseball and a badminton shuttlecock are presented as examples.</p>Peter Chudinov, Vladimir Eltyshev, Yuri Barykin
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https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/6167Mon, 03 Jul 2017 04:42:02 +0000 Yang-Mills Families
https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/6173
<p>The Yang-Mills theory structure is based on group theory. It rules the symmetry relationship where the number of potential fields transforming under a same group must be equal to the number of group generators. It defines the group valued expression from where the corresponding non-abelian symmetry properties are derived.</p> <p>Nevertheless based on different origins as Kaluza-Klein, fibre bundles, supersymmetry, s-model , BRST and anti-BRST algorithm, counting degrees of freedom leads to a Yang-Mills extension under the existence of different potential fields rotating under a same single group. They establish for SU(N) the relationship where and is a flavor index, . Physically, it says that different Yang-Mills families can share a common symmetry group. They develop a whole non-abelian gauge theory.</p> <p>The effort in this work is to explore such non-abelian extension. First, to build up it on the so-called constructor basis where gauge symmetry is more available for expressing the corresponding fields strengths, Lagrangian and classical equations. After that, given that the physical fields are those associated to the poles of two-point Green functions, one derives the physical Lagrangian L written in the physical basis .</p> <p>A new physical Lagrangian associated to symmetry is generated. The meaning of Yang-Mills families appears. A symmetry of difference is realized. Where every quanta is distinguished from each other. It yields a quanta diversity associated to corresponding Yang-Mills families. There are N-spin 1 and N-spin 0 quanta separated by different quantum numbers through a whole N-dynamics. An extension to QCD becomes possible.</p>R.M. Doria, S. Machado
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https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/6173Mon, 03 Jul 2017 04:43:27 +0000 Comparative Analysis of SAR and Temperature Rise within Head Tissues Exposed to Radiofrequency Radiation From GSM Transceiver Base Station in South-South Nigeria.
https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/6086
<p>In this study, measurement of radiofrequency exposure due to cellular transceiver base station antennas was carried out. Both far and near field measurements of electric field and magnetic field level were made around selected transceiver base station antennas in selected South-South States Nigeria, with the aid of frequency-dependent equipment (CORNET, Electrosmog meter ED78S EMF RF/LF Dual mode model). The results obtained were analysed using thermal related indices such as specific absorption rate (SAR) with peak value in cerebrospinal fluid-CSF (0.095358W/kg), temperature rise with peak also in CSF (0.008381 <sup>o</sup>C). These results were compared with threshold values of 2 W/kg and 0.08 W/kg for SAR (over the head and whole body respectively), and 1<sup>o</sup>C for temperature rise as set by International Commission of Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The results indicate that none of the network operators in the study area have SAR above the recommended threshold value with the worst case observed in Calabar. </p>Ushie Patrick, O.D. Osahon, O. A. Ojo
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https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/6086Mon, 03 Jul 2017 05:16:24 +0000 Superconducting String Theory
https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/6201
<p>Gravity explained by a new theory, ‘Superconducting String Theory (SST)’, inspired on initial string theories and completely opposite from actual fields based. Strengths are decomposed to make strings behave as one-dimensional with universe acting as a superconductor where resistance is near 0 and matter moves inside. Strong nuclear force, with an attraction of 10.000 Newtons is which makes space to curve, generating acceleration. More matter more acceleration. Electromagnetic moves in 8 decimals, gravity is moved to more than 30 decimals to work as a superconductor.</p>Sergio Perez Felipe
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https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/6201Mon, 03 Jul 2017 05:28:22 +0000 Hydrogen production using Al-Sn alloys prepared by rapid solidification
https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/6194
<p>Air pollution produced by the direct burning of fossil fuels is a serious problem. Therefore, there is a vital demand for renewable and clean fuel replacements for future energy source. Hydrogen, which exhibits high calorific value and is a clean burning product, could be the first choice in the future, as it is a good-looking fuel for fuel cells where the electric energy is directly gotten by the electrochemical reactions of hydrogen and oxygen. Rapidly solidified Al<sub>100-x</sub>-Sn<sub>x</sub> alloy X= (0, 25, 55, 75 all in wt.%) was prepared using melt spinning technique at 800<sup> º</sup>C. The structural and microstructural evolutions of the phases have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and the Rietveld method. Al<sub>45</sub>Sn<sub>55</sub> alloy shows the best volume of hydrogen generation which is (531 ml), this alloy has the highest number of grains (1096) than other prepared alloys in its surface which examined through a Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and analyzed using an SPM data visualization and analysis tool (Gwyddion 2.32). Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was used for calculating melting temperature for all prepared alloys. Melting temperature reduced from 933.47 K for Al pure to 500.95 K in Al<sub>45</sub>Sn<sub>55</sub> alloy. Temperature dependence of resistivity had been performed for all prepared alloys. Electrical properties of prepared alloys show the decrease in volume of the unit cell V with increasing VEC, which means that the volume of the first Brillouin zone increases by increasing VEC since they are inversely proportional to each other.</p>Sara Mosaad, Y. M.Abbas, A. Hassan Ibrahim, M. Orabi
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https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/6194Thu, 06 Jul 2017 01:39:50 +0000 Nambu-Goto Strings viaWeierstrass Representation
https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/6245
<p>A description of string model of gauge theory are related to minimal surfaces. notations of minimal surface and related mean and Gauss curvature discussed. The Weierstrass representation for a surface conformally which immersed in R used to represent Nambu- Goto action, action of Nambu Goto is calculated usingWeierstrass representation which can be used to calculate the Partion Function and potential, then a non-perturbative solution for action is aimed and fulfilled and a consequences of that are investigated and its mathematical and physical properties are discussed.</p>Mahmoud kotb
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https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/6245Fri, 28 Jul 2017 03:28:05 +0000 RADIOACTIVE EVENT BIFURCATION - AN EXAMPLE OF DISTRIBUTION
https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/6214
<p>The present text contains a proposal to analyze the behavior of a beam of particles that, due to some physical mechanism, is divided into two. For the purpose of clarification, we emphasize that the term to be used to designate the process that has occurred will be bifurcation.</p> <p> This fact, we inform that the pretension of this article is to discuss probabilistically the effect of the bifurcation of the beam establishing a distribution function with calculations of its standard and average value.</p> <p> The expectation is also to be able to discuss the characteristics of the function and analyze, mainly its average value, as a function of the average number of incidents and suppressed events. It is intended to direct the analysis, preferably, towards a possible comparison with phenomena reported in the literature, notably facts that are linked to possible distortions caused by the measuring system, supposedly mounted by an observer, in order to monitor the bifurcation mechanism.</p>Celso Luis Levada
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https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/6214Tue, 01 Aug 2017 01:56:22 +0000 The necessary and sufficient condition for the stability of a rigid body
https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/6255
<p>In this paper, the stability of the unperturbed rigid body motion close to conditions, related with the center of mass, is investigated. The three first integrals for the equations of motion are obtained. These integrals are used to achieve a Lyapunov function and to obtain the necessary and sufficient condition satisfies the stability criteria.</p>W. S. Amer
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https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/6255Tue, 01 Aug 2017 01:57:45 +0000 Proof of Renormalizability of Scalar Field Theories Using the Epstein-Glaser Scheme and Techniques of Microlocal Analysis
https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/6260
<p>The renormalizability of QFT's is a vastly studied issue, and particularly the results concerning a scalar eld theory are well-known through the traditional<br>renormalization approach in the literature. However, in this paper we analyze the problem through a less known approach, which justies in a more rigorous<br>and mathematically neat manner, the heuristic arguments of standard treatments of divergencies in QFT's. This paper analyzes the renormalizability of<br>an arbitrary Scalar Field Theory with interaction Lagrangean L(x) =: 'm(x) : using the method of Epstein-Glaser and techniques of microlocal analysis, in<br>particular, the concept of scaling degree of a distribution. For a renormalizability proof of perturbative models in the Epstein-Glaser scheme one rst needs to dene an n-fold product of sub-Wick monomials of the interaction Lagrangean. This time ordering is an operator-valued distribution on R4n and the basic issue is its ill-denedness on a null set. The renormalization of a theory in this scheme amounts to the problem of extension of distributions across null sets.</p>Lucas Tavares Cardoso
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https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/6260Tue, 01 Aug 2017 01:59:19 +0000