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CIRWORLD en-US JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS 2347-3487 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> <p>The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations. The submitting author is responsible for securing any permissions needed for the reuse of copyrighted materials included in the manuscript.</p> <p>While the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate on the date of its going to press, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.</p> Effect of UV Irradiation on the Structure and Optical Properties of PVA/CuCl2 https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/7358 <p>The morphology and optical properties of doped PVA with Copper Chloride&nbsp;CuCl<sub>2</sub> have been investigated.&nbsp; The morphology of doped samples has been examined using both atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to investigate the effect of CuCl<sub>2</sub> on the structure of PVA.&nbsp; X-ray diffraction showed <u>that,</u> the crystallinity of PVA is increased with increasing CuCl<sub>2</sub> ratio.&nbsp; In addition, FTIR spectra showed <u>that,</u> some absorbance bands such as bands of OH groups have been affected due to CuCl<sub>2</sub> ratio and UV irradiation.&nbsp; On the other hand, the effect of CuCl<sub>2</sub> ratio and UV irradiation on UV spectra of all samples has been carried out in the range from 200 to 800 nm.&nbsp; It is observed that, PVA is characterized by two absorbance bands at 278 and 313 nm. The values of absorbance edge, Urbach energy and the direct energy gap of all samples have been calculated.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Moustafa Tawfik Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-04 2018-06-04 14 2 5378 5387 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7358 Chitosan Molecular Weight Effects on the Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles and Catalytic Degradation of Environmental Pollutants https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/7347 <p style="margin: 0px; text-align: justify;"><span style="margin: 0px; color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 9pt;">Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) was synthesized with Chitosan different molecular weight (MW) using<span style="margin: 0px;">&nbsp; </span>a microwave as a heating source. Since, Chitosan acts as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The as-synthesized Au NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and selected area electron diffraction patterns (SAED). Furthermore, the Au NPs fabrication was ascertained by UV–Visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis) through the detection of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) characteristic peak, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The formation of the Au NPs was confirmed by the detection of a LSPR peak at 518–527 nm in the UV–Vis spectrum. In addition, the XRD studies depicted that the obtained Au NPs were highly crystalline with ‘face-centered’ cubic geometry. Moreover, TEM micrographs showed that the most </span><span style="margin: 0px; color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 10pt;">Monodispersed </span><span style="margin: 0px; color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 9pt;">AuNPs was synthesized with low molecular weight (LMW) Chitosan with particle size 4.48±0.09 nm. The synthesized Chitosan-Au nanocomposite exhibited an efficient catalytic property in the reduction of<span style="margin: 0px;">&nbsp; </span>two organic environmental pollutants which are, 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and methyl orange (MO) dye in the presence of sodium borohydride (NaBH<sub>4</sub>).</span></p> Hosam Salaheldin Ibrahim ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-04 2018-06-04 14 2 5388 5405 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7347 The Anisotropy of electron scattering in uniaxial deformed n-Si single crystals with radiation defects https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/7400 <p>The tensoresistance at the uniaxial pressure along the crystallographic direction [100] for n-Si single crystals, which were irradiated by the different doses of gamma quants was investigated. On the basis of the theory of anisotropic scattering and experimental data of the tensoresistance the dependences of the parameter of mobility anisotropy on the uniaxial pressure for the data of single crystals are obtained. It has been shown that for unirradiated n-Si single crystals, the parameter of mobility anisotropy does not depend on uniaxial pressure since the alloying impurities of phosphorus will be completely ionized at T=77 K. For the gamma - irradiated n-Si single crystals the parameter of mobility anisotropy will decrease with an increase in exposure dose by reducing the screening effect. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the mechanisms of electron scattering on the impurity ions, impurity complexes, which consist of several ions of the impurity and on the fluctuation potential, which leads to the appearance of gradients of resistivity. The changing of relative contribution of these the scattering mechanismsat at the uniaxial pressure determines the obtained dependences of the parameter of mobility anisotropy and the tensoelectric properties of gamma-irradiated n-Si single crystals.</p> Sergiy Valentynovych Luniov Andriy Zimych Yulia Udovytska Olexandr Burban ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-05 2018-06-05 14 2 5406 5414 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7400 NEW ELECTRON CONVERSION LINES FROM EXISTING γ-TRANSITIONS IN 160Dy https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/7319 <p>Three photo plates derived with spectrograph LNP JINR with constant magnetic field [1] have been investigated using the Microscope Automatic Scanning MAS [2]. Electron internal conversion (ICE) spectrograms of two erbium (Er P-2, Er P-8) and one Ho fractions has been measured. More detailed analysis gave us the possibility to obtain some new lines (see table) in addition to many earlier existing lines in <sup>160</sup>Dy [3]. For that investigations it is necessary to increase the speed with which microscopic objects are measured are described. These efforts include the modernization of the MAS automatic scanning microscope and the development of programs to reach an initial point and for carrying out automatic point-to-point linear transitions with a specified step. The error in realizing a transition to a given point with specified coordinates is shown to amount to 1 µm.</p> Bogachenko D.D. Oleg Konstantinovich Egorov Garistov V.P. Kolesnikov V.V. Silaev V.I. Solnyshkin A.A. ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-05 2018-06-05 14 2 5415 5419 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7319 Assessment of radioactivity in various types of soil from Al-Obour city, Egypt. https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/7370 <p>The distributions of natural radioactivity in various types of samples collected from several areas in Al-Obour city were determined using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Four types of samples were investigated: soil, foundations, sand dunes and rock samples. The specific activities of 238U, 226Ra series, 232Th and 40K in soil; foundations; sand dunes and rock samples have a mean of (13.31±3.59); (12.96±3.63); (13.36±4.32) and (26.74±5.50), (6.49±0.23); (3.71±0.16); (3.87±0.17) and (19.38±0.64), (6.52±0.55); (4.03±0.46); (3.90±0.45) and (25.91±1.89) and (96.21±1.60); (78.12±1.46); (76.27±1.43) and (215.71±3.35)Bq/kg, respectively.It was also noticed that 137Cs is existed in some samples but is close to the background level. The hazard indices were also determined in all types of samples of the under study area. These values are important to establish baseline levels of this environmental radioactivity to detect any upcoming change for the local population.</p> Fatma Ragab ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-05 2018-06-05 14 2 5420 5434 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7370 ZnS/Cu2ZnSnS4/CdTe/In thin film structure for solar cells https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/7395 <p>A solar cell with glass/ITO/ZnS/Cu<sub>2</sub>ZnSnS<sub>4</sub>/CdTe/In structure has been fabricated using all-electrodeposited ZnS, Cu<sub>2</sub>ZnSnS<sub>4</sub> and CdTe thin films. The three semiconductor layers were electrodeposited using a two-electrode system for process simplification. The incorporation of a wide bandgap amorphous ZnS as a buffer/window layer to form&nbsp; ITO/ZnS/Cu<sub>2</sub>ZnSnS<sub>4</sub>/CdTe/In solar cell resulted in the formation of this 3-layer device structure. This has yielded corresponding improvement in all the solar cell parameters resulting in a conversion efficiency &gt;12% under AM1.5 illumination conditions at room temperature.&nbsp; These results demonstrate the advantages of the multi-layer device architecture over the conventional 2-layer structure.</p> Maarif Ali Jafarov E.F. Nasirov S.A. Jahangirova ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-05 2018-06-05 14 2 5435 5441 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7395 The beginning of the nuclear universe and the theory of orbital superconductivity of the stars https://cirworld.com/index.php/jap/article/view/7406 <ol> <li>This article is a logical and rational analysis of the original nuclear matter, and of the structure that gave rise to the space architecture of the universe with galaxies, stars, the system of planets and moons, and arrives to original and inedited conclusions.</li> <li>After the so-called Big Bang of the universe arose the space, a new time count and the nuclear universe, governed by the actions of the physical properties of nuclear superconductivity space.</li> <li>The actions of the physical properties of superconductivity nuclear matter generate the spatial phenomenon of orbital superconductivity, which creates the orbit and space distance of the orbit between the moons with their planets, between the planets with their star, forming the system of planets, and among the stars creating the architecture of the galaxy.</li> </ol> <p>4 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The actions of the physical properties of superconductivity nuclear matter also generate the spatial phenomenon of gravity superconductivity, which creates the form and distance of gravity in moons, planets, planets, stars and comets, creating the actions of physics of the star and planet with gravity superconductivity.</p> <ol start="5"> <li>The actions of the physical properties of superconductivity nuclear matter also generates the spatial phenomenon of nuclear superconductivity of magnetism, which creates the magnetic pole and the spatial distance of the magnetic field.</li> <li>The nucleus of all stars, planets, moons, are made of matter, called, by mass of energy nuclear of superconductivity.</li> <li>All the materials that exist in the nuclear universe are produced, through the atomic decomposition of nuclear matter of superconductivity.</li> <li>The atomic decomposition of superconductivity nuclear matter reduces the nucleus and nuclear energy of spatial superconductivity.</li> <li>In the reduction of superconductivity nuclear energy there is a loss of the orbital superconductivity property of the moon and the planet.</li> <li>In the loss of the orbital superconductivity property of the moon and the planet, the moon is attracted by the superconductivity of the planet and reduces orbit until attracted by the superconductivity of the planet's gravitational field.</li> <li>The fall of the moon will destroy the planet or produce a crater because of the size of the planet.</li> <li>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;The fall of the moon on Jupiter will create an immense nuclear crater in which the diameter and depth will measure the extension of thousands of kilometers.</li> <li>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;The fall of the moon on Mars will create an immense nuclear explosion, and will destroy the planet.</li> <li>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Majority of the planets of the galaxies and the universe have a time schedule of self-destruction in the fall of the moons.</li> <li>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Most of the planets in the solar system have a time schedule of self-destruction in the fall of the moons.</li> </ol> Eduardo S. Guimarães ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-06-05 2018-06-05 14 2 5442 5448 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7406