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CIRWORLD en-US JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS 2347-3487 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> Effect of UV Irradiation on The Structure and Optical Properties of PVA/Cucl2 <p>The morphology and optical properties of doped PVA with Copper Chloride, CuCl<sub>2</sub> have been investigated. &nbsp;&nbsp;The morphology of doped samples has been examined using both atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to investigate the effect of CuCl<sub>2</sub> on the structure of PVA.&nbsp; X-ray diffraction showed that the crystallinity of PVA is increased with increasing CuCl<sub>2</sub> ratio.&nbsp; In addition, FTIR spectra showed that, some absorbance bands such as bands of OH groups have been affected due to CuCl<sub>2</sub> ratio and UV irradiation.&nbsp; On the other hand, the effect of CuCl<sub>2</sub> ratio and UV irradiation on UV spectra of all samples has been carried out in the range from 200 to 800 nm.&nbsp; It is observed that, PVA is characterized by two absorbance bands at 278 and 313 nm. The values of absorbance edge, Urbach energy and the direct energy gap of all samples have been calculated.</p> Moustafa Tawfik Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-04 2018-06-04 14 2 5378 5387 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7358 Chitosan Molecular Weight Effects on The Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles and Catalytic Degradation of Environmental Pollutants <p style="margin: 0px; text-align: justify;"><span style="margin: 0px; color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 9pt;">Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) was synthesized with Chitosan different molecular weight (MW) using<span style="margin: 0px;">&nbsp; </span>a microwave as a heating source. Since, Chitosan acts as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The as-synthesized Au NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and selected area electron diffraction patterns (SAED). Furthermore, the Au NPs fabrication was ascertained by UV–Visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis) through the detection of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) characteristic peak, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The formation of the Au NPs was confirmed by the detection of a LSPR peak at 518–527 nm in the UV–Vis spectrum. In addition, the XRD studies depicted that the obtained Au NPs were highly crystalline with ‘face-centered’ cubic geometry. Moreover, TEM micrographs showed that the most </span><span style="margin: 0px; color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 10pt;">Monodispersed </span><span style="margin: 0px; color: black; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-size: 9pt;">AuNPs was synthesized with low molecular weight (LMW) Chitosan with particle size 4.48±0.09 nm. The synthesized Chitosan-Au nanocomposite exhibited an efficient catalytic property in the reduction of<span style="margin: 0px;">&nbsp; </span>two organic environmental pollutants which are, 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and methyl orange (MO) dye in the presence of sodium borohydride (NaBH<sub>4</sub>).</span></p> Hosam Salaheldin Ibrahim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-04 2018-06-04 14 2 5388 5405 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7347 The The Anisotropy of Electron Scattering in Uniaxially Deformed N-Si Single Crystals with Radiation Defects <p>The tensoresistance at the uniaxial pressure along the crystallographic direction [100] for n-Si single crystals, which were irradiated by the different doses of gamma quants was investigated. On the basis of the theory of anisotropic scattering and experimental data of the tensoresistance the dependences of the parameter of mobility anisotropy on the uniaxial pressure for the data of single crystals are obtained. It has been shown that for unirradiated n-Si single crystals, the parameter of mobility anisotropy does not depend on uniaxial pressure since the alloying impurities of phosphorus will be completely ionized at T=77 K. For the gamma - irradiated n-Si single crystals the parameter of mobility anisotropy will decrease with an increase in exposure dose by reducing the screening effect. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the mechanisms of electron scattering on the impurity ions, impurity complexes, which consist of several ions of the impurity and on the fluctuation potential, which leads to the appearance of gradients of resistivity. The changing of relative contribution of these the scattering mechanismsat at the uniaxial pressure determines the obtained dependences of the parameter of mobility anisotropy and the tensoelectric properties of gamma-irradiated n-Si single crystals.</p> Sergiy Valentynovych Luniov Andriy Zimych Yulia Udovytska Olexandr Burban ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-05 2018-06-05 14 2 5406 5414 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7400 New Electron Conversion Lines from Existing ?-Transitions In 160dy <p>Three photo plates derived with spectrograph LNP JINR with constant magnetic field [1] have been investigated using the Microscope Automatic Scanning MAS [2]. Electron internal conversion (ICE) spectrograms of two erbium (Er P-2, Er P-8) and one Ho fractions has been measured. More detailed analysis gave us the possibility to obtain some new lines (see table) in addition to many earlier existing lines in <sup>160</sup>Dy [3]. For that investigations it is necessary to increase the speed with which microscopic objects are measured are described. These efforts include the modernization of the MAS automatic scanning microscope and the development of programs to reach an initial point and for carrying out automatic point-to-point linear transitions with a specified step. The error in realizing a transition to a given point with specified coordinates is shown to amount to 1 µm.</p> Bogachenko D.D. Oleg Konstantinovich Egorov Garistov V.P. Kolesnikov V.V. Silaev V.I. Solnyshkin A.A. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-05 2018-06-05 14 2 5415 5419 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7319 Assessment of Radioactivity in Various Types of Soil From Al-Obour City, Egypt. <p>The distributions of natural radioactivity in various types of samples collected from several areas in Al-Obour city were determined using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Four types of samples were investigated: soil, foundations, sand dunes and rock samples. The specific activities of 238U, 226Ra series, 232Th and 40K in soil; foundations; sand dunes and rock samples have a mean of (13.31±3.59); (12.96±3.63); (13.36±4.32) and (26.74±5.50), (6.49±0.23); (3.71±0.16); (3.87±0.17) and (19.38±0.64), (6.52±0.55); (4.03±0.46); (3.90±0.45) and (25.91±1.89) and (96.21±1.60); (78.12±1.46); (76.27±1.43) and (215.71±3.35)Bq/kg, respectively.It was also noticed that 137Cs is existed in some samples but is close to the background level. The hazard indices were also determined in all types of samples of the under study area. These values are important to establish baseline levels of this environmental radioactivity to detect any upcoming change for the local population.</p> Fatma Ragab ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-05 2018-06-05 14 2 5420 5434 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7370 ZnS/Cu2ZnSnS4/CdTe/In Thin Film Structure for Solar Cells <p>A solar cell with glass/ITO/ZnS/Cu<sub>2</sub>ZnSnS<sub>4</sub>/CdTe/In structure has been fabricated using all-electrodeposited ZnS, Cu<sub>2</sub>ZnSnS<sub>4</sub> and CdTe thin films. The three semiconductor layers were electrodeposited using a two-electrode system for process simplification. The incorporation of a wide bandgap amorphous ZnS as a buffer/window layer to form&nbsp; ITO/ZnS/Cu<sub>2</sub>ZnSnS<sub>4</sub>/CdTe/In solar cell resulted in the formation of this 3-layer device structure. This has yielded corresponding improvement in all the solar cell parameters resulting in a conversion efficiency &gt;12% under AM1.5 illumination conditions at room temperature.&nbsp; These results demonstrate the advantages of the multi-layer device architecture over the conventional 2-layer structure.</p> Maarif Ali Jafarov E.F. Nasirov S.A. Jahangirova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-05 2018-06-05 14 2 5435 5441 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7395 The Beginning of The Nuclear Universe and The Theory of Orbital Superconductivity of The Celestial Bodies <ol> <li>This article is a logical and rational analysis of the original nuclear matter, and of the structure that gave rise to the space architecture of the universe with galaxies, stars, the system of planets and moons, and arrives to original and inedited conclusions.</li> <li>After the so-called Big Bang of the universe arose the space, a new time count and the nuclear universe, governed by the actions of the physical properties of nuclear superconductivity space.</li> <li>The actions of the physical properties of superconductivity nuclear matter generate the spatial phenomenon of orbital superconductivity, which creates the orbit and space distance of the orbit between the moons with their planets, between the planets with their star, forming the system of planets, and among the stars creating the architecture of the galaxy.</li> </ol> <p>4 &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The actions of the physical properties of superconductivity nuclear matter also generate the spatial phenomenon of gravity superconductivity, which creates the form and distance of gravity in moons, planets, planets, stars and comets, creating the actions of physics of the star and planet with gravity superconductivity.</p> <ol start="5"> <li>The actions of the physical properties of superconductivity nuclear matter also generates the spatial phenomenon of nuclear superconductivity of magnetism, which creates the magnetic pole and the spatial distance of the magnetic field.</li> <li>The nucleus of all stars, planets, moons, are made of matter, called, by mass of energy nuclear of superconductivity.</li> <li>All the materials that exist in the nuclear universe are produced, through the atomic decomposition of nuclear matter of superconductivity.</li> <li>The atomic decomposition of superconductivity nuclear matter reduces the nucleus and nuclear energy of spatial superconductivity.</li> <li>In the reduction of superconductivity nuclear energy there is a loss of the orbital superconductivity property of the moon and the planet.</li> <li>In the loss of the orbital superconductivity property of the moon and the planet, the moon is attracted by the superconductivity of the planet and reduces orbit until attracted by the superconductivity of the planet's gravitational field.</li> <li>The fall of the moon will destroy the planet or produce a crater because of the size of the planet.</li> <li>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;The fall of the moon on Jupiter will create an immense nuclear crater in which the diameter and depth will measure the extension of thousands of kilometers.</li> <li>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;The fall of the moon on Mars will create an immense nuclear explosion, and will destroy the planet.</li> <li>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Majority of the planets of the galaxies and the universe have a time schedule of self-destruction in the fall of the moons.</li> <li>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Most of the planets in the solar system have a time schedule of self-destruction in the fall of the moons.</li> </ol> Eduardo S. Guimarães ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-05 2018-06-05 14 2 5442 5448 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7406 Radiological Mapping of Al-Dabaa Site at Low Depth Profile for Evaluation its Suitability for Disposal of Radioactive Wastes <p>Disposal sites use series of natural and engineered barriers to contain either radioactive wastes and or spent nuclear fuel. Migration of radionuclide and their pathways studies are carried out as selection criteria of radioactive waste disposal/storage facility. In the framework of the planned NPPs program at Al-Dabaa site, radiological mapping at low depth profile of a specific area within the site has been carried out for evaluation its suitability for disposal of radioactive wastes. Twenty samples were collected from different bore holes of about 12-meterdepthprofile.The samples were transported to the laboratory and prepared for non-destructive assay using well calibrated 60% efficiency High-Purity Germanium (HpGe) detector. The natural radioactivity of <sup>235</sup>U, <sup>238</sup>U (<sup>234</sup>Th), <sup>226</sup>Ra, <sup>232</sup>Th and <sup>40</sup>K were determined and quantified. The <sup>235</sup>U/<sup>238</sup>U activity ratios were also calculated and found to be within the natural signature. The Absorbed dose rates (nGy/h) were also calculated and found in the average world value; 59nGy/h. The man-made <sup>137</sup>Cs was also found in ultra-low activity concentrations, where the highest value was found to be 0.00987 Bq/kg. The mineralogy of the collected site samples was also investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis technique to identify and determine the major mineral structure of the samples. It was observed that Dolomite and Calcite are the major minerals of the investigated site. The results are discussed and represented as histograms, contour mapping and 3D correlations. These results are also going to be used as inputs and bases for a future work; code modeling for evaluation of Al-Dabaa site.</p> M. Badraway ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-01 2018-07-01 14 2 5449 5459 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7449 Influence of Au on Ge Crystallization and Its Thermoelectric Properties in a Au-induced Ge Crystallization Technique <p>Poly-crystalline Ge (pc-Ge) thin films were prepared on a SiO<sub>2</sub>/Si substrate using Au-induced crystallization (GIC) of amorphous Ge (a-Ge) with an annealing temperature around the eutectic point of Au-Ge alloy system (361ºC) in order to shorten the annealing time. Bilayer thin films of Au (20 nm)/a-Ge (100 nm) were used as a precursor material and annealed at 300, 400, and 500 ºC for 60 min, which successfully leads to the formation of pc-Ge layers. Characterizing the prepared Ge layers, the crystallographic properties indicated that the metal catalyst Au plays a notable role of enhancing both the crystallization and the island formation of Ge layers. It was also shown that the pc-Ge hardly contains Au atoms. Therefore, the Seebeck coefficient was hardly influenced by Au atoms since they do not act as a carrier source. In addition, the thermal conductivity of the pc-Ge film prepared by the GIC method was higher than that formed without Au, which is not due to the Au catalyst itself but due to the crystallinity of Ge film enhanced by the Au atoms.</p> Shanthi Selvaraj Faizan Khan Shunsuke Nishino Omprakash Muthusamy Tsunehiro Takeuchi Yosuke Shimura Yasuhiro Hayakawa Muthamizhchelvan Chellamuthu Hiroya Ikeda ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-01 2018-07-01 14 2 5460 5466 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7421 Entanglement Explained by Sequencing Satisfies Lack of Trajectory and The Holographic Principle <p>The implications of entanglement have scared many, but if we use all we understand about existence sequencing is probably the answer given probable experiments that we should have the technology to do within the next 5 years. The simpler the easier to understand. This paper is in the tradition of thought experiments, not all have access for modern technology, a thought of the mind, given that we are further introducing algorithms into not only physics but life in general, sequencing is merely an algorithm.</p> Bhekuzulu Khumalo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-01 2018-07-01 14 2 5467 5476 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7472 Characterization of Thermally Evaporated CdSe1-XSX Thin Films for Solar Cells Applications <p>Binary semiconductor CdSe and CdS thin films are widely used for optoelectronic devices and window materials. The formation of ternary CdSe1-xSx thin films improves the physical characteristics of the binary CdSe thin films. The importance of CdSe1-xSx thin film is the change of band gap when incorporating S into the CdSe. This change in energy gap recommends CdSe1-xSx thin film for photovoltaic and photoconductive cells applications. In this work, polycrystalline CdSe1-xSx thin films have been grown in terms of thermal evaporation technique. X-ray diffractometry has been used to determine the lattice parameters and the crystallite size of the CdSe1-xSx mixed crystals. The variation in lattice parameters with composition from x = 0 to x = 1 were linearly. The crystallite size varies parabolically with the change in composition. The energy gap, opt g E , values of CdSe1-xSx thin films were estimated in terms of first derivative of absorbance with respect to wavelength and found to be increased with the formation of the ternary compound Cd-Se-S and with increasing the S content as expense of Se. This wider energy gap of the prepared films, which permits extra light to reach the solar cell junction, was correlated with the change in the microstructure parameters of thin films.</p> M. Abdel-Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-01 2018-07-01 14 2 5477 5487 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7446 Cadmium Doped Copper Containing Phosphate Glass as a Bandpass Filter for Solar Cell Protection <p>A glass system of composition 44P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>-38ZnO-2CuO-(16-<em>x</em>)Na<sub>2</sub>O-<em>x</em>CdO (where, <em>x</em> = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mol%) has been prepared using the conventional melt quenching technique. XRD patterns confirmed the amorphous nature for the prepared samples. Archimedes’ method was used to determine the density of the prepared glass samples then the molar volume was calculated. The optical spectroscopic investigations of the prepared glass samples were carried out over the spectral range (190-1100 nm). The transmission spectra revealed that the prepared glass samples behave as bandpass filters in the visible region. The absorption studies were employed to determine the optical band gap and Urbach energy. The spectral distribution of the refractive index assured the lowest dispersion of the glass in the visible region. Other physical parameters such as the extinction coefficient, the optical conductivity, and the complex dielectric constant were evaluated. The results suggested the practicality of employing such low-cost glass as a bandpass filter for optical applications such as UV-elimination and solar cell protection. The role of CdO as a network modifier in the phosphate glass was revealed.</p> Hytham Ahmed Abd El-Ghany ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-01 2018-07-01 14 2 5488 5503 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7450 Modification in Bi-Ag Lead-Free Solder-Bearing Alloying Elements <p>The development of lead-free solder has an urgent task for material scientist due to health and environmental concerns over the lead content of traditional solders. The objective of this study is to examine Bi-Ag-rare earth (RE) element considered as one of the more attractive lead-free solders since it can easily replace Sn-Pb eutectic alloy with increasing soldering temperature while causes for high-temperature applications. In order to enhance the soldering properties of Bi-Ag alloys, a trace eare earth (RE) element of Ho added into Bi-Ag alloys. The results indicated that the addition of RE led to the refining of coarse Bi-Ag grains, in the microstructure. The tensile strength, Hv and creep resistance increased with a decrease in melting point and electrical resistance. This paper brief the influences of rare earth alloying element and rapid solidification on both of the microstructure, intermetallic compounds, creep resistance, melting behavior, electrical resistance and mechanical behavior.</p> Rizk Mostafa Shalaby Musaeed Allzeleh Mustafa Kamal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-01 2018-07-01 14 2 5504 5519 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7471 Surprising attraction of non-magnetic materials to magnets <p>We explored the effects of static magnetic fields on materials commonly classified as non-ferromagnetic and non-paramagnetic. By floating pieces of paper, wood, Teflon, and Nafion on different liquids and placing those objects near a neodymium magnet, we found that the objects moved consistently towards the magnet. As the distance between object and magnet diminished, the attraction strengthened. The results imply that objects currently classified as non-magnetic may in fact be at least weakly magnetic.</p> Tin Trung Vo Gerald Pollack ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-01 2018-07-01 14 2 5520 5525 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7368 Gravity – An Intrinsic Property of Matter! A Qualitative Graviton-Orbital-Band Theory <p>All profound theories of nature, life, and society have some philosophical underpinning; the theories of gravity are no exceptions. The theories of gravitation of Isaac Newton and Louis Le Sage were based on mechanical materialism and British empiricism. Albert Einstein developed his geometrical theory of gravity based on idealist Neo-Berkeleyan “positivism” of Ernst Mach. But none of these theories provide, among other things, any tangible intuition into the development of discrete, quantized and the shell like structure of matter from the subatomic to the cosmic, that modern physics, astrophysics and astronomy are revealing in increasing details. A dialectical and qualitative quantum mechanical approach to gravity based on a concept of quantized graviton-orbitals provides an explanation for the cellular structure in the universe.</p> Abdul Malek ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-30 2018-07-30 14 2 5526 5534 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7484 The Theory of The Nuclear Universe and The Secret of The Supernova <ol> <li>This article is a deep, logical and rational analysis of the three original nuclear and chemical elements of the architecture of the nuclear universe, and which give superconducting motion to the solar system and galaxies of the universe.</li> <li>After the so-called Big Bang of the universe came the space, a new time count and the nuclear universe, governed by the attractions and repulsions of the physical properties of the nuclear superconductivity mass.</li> <li>Then, three new superconductive materials emerged in space consisting of three new nuclear chemical elements.</li> <li>The first liquid superconductive mass of gravity appeared.</li> <li>Liquid superconductive masses of orbital attraction and the superconductive mass of orbital repulsion were formed.</li> <li>The mass of gravity by means of a gravitational turmoil and centrifuged the three nuclear masses.</li> <li>So in this way the solar system was created.</li> <li>Then, the natural moons were created from the volumetric rest of the matter that formed the planet.</li> <li>At this early time the moons had the rotational motion on their axis, similar to the planet.</li> <li>At this early time the planets already had the rotation movement.</li> <li>In "old age," the moon stopped the rotation and began the revolution movement.</li> <li>In the 21st century, the Earth's core is solid or pasty.</li> </ol> Eduardo S. Guimarães ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-30 2018-07-30 14 2 5535 5545 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7494 Field of Energy <p>The study of physics requires the definition of general characteristics such as the so-called fundamental properties of space and time, which are homogeneity and isotropy. From the application of the homogeneity of time in the integral equations of the movement arises the theorem of the conservation of energy. That the parameter of variation be time leads to defining energy as scalar.<br>Relativistic mechanics has shown that time is one of the dimensions of a tetra-dimensional space and, therefore, an event is projected in the spatial and temporal dimensions, this projection varies according to the reference system that is used. This indicates that equating time to a dimension of space, should be analyzed not only under the condition of homogeneity but also of the isotropy. This leads to analyzing energy as a vector.<br>In classical mechanics, a body moving in a gravitational field its energy can be decomposed in two directions, one that remains constant, normal to the field, and the other that varies with gravity. This shows vector properties of energy.<br>This study proposes a more general response through the energy field.</p> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> Armando Tomás Canero Marco Armando Canero ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-30 2018-07-30 14 2 5546 5553 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7491 Synthesis and Structural Characteristics of Semi-Synthetic Biopolymer Blends Based on Polyvinyl Alcohol, Starch and Chitosan <p>Structural and optical studies in combination with surface morphology investigations were accomplished for blend sample (70/30)wt% PVA/Starch in addition to other samples of the same composition containing added pre-calculated chitosan contents via ordinary casting route. All synthesized samples were tested using various experimental techniques including Fourier transform infrared FT-IR, UV-visible spectroscopic measurements and scanning electron microscopic (SEM). Variations in FT-IR, UV/vis. band positions and intensities were used as an evidence for the interaction between constituent partner polymeric matrices. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) experimental data reveled that introduction of chitosan into the polymeric matrices results in a decreasing of percent crystallinity through material. SEM micrographs for samples containing chitosan different concentration revealed small granules and bright spots that attributed to starch. Adding up to 80% more chitosan caused the cryo-fractured surface to become rougher and more brittle.</p> Amal Gad Elshahawy S. I. Badr A. A. Shadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-30 2018-07-30 14 2 5554 5563 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7477 Neutron Activation Analysis of Some Building Material <p><a href="">Neutron activation analysis</a>&nbsp;(NAA), based on the comparator method, has the potential to fulfill the requirements of a primary ratio method as defined in 1998 by the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière — Métrologie en Chimie (CCQM, Consultative Committee on Amount of Substance —&nbsp;<a href="">Metrology</a>&nbsp;in Chemistry Studies of Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) have been carried out on different Egyptian building material samples. The technique of neutron activation analysis is based on the measurement of radiation released by the decay of radioactive nuclei formed by neutron irradiation of the material. The most suitable source of neutrons for such an application is usually a research reactor. The samples that can be analyzed with this method stem from a number of different fields, including medicine, nutrition, biology, chemistry, forensics, the environment and mining. Neutron activation analysis can be performed in a variety of ways. This depends on the element and the corresponding radiation levels to be measured, as well as on the nature and the extent of interference from other elements present in the sample. Most of the methods used are non-destructive, based on the detection of gamma radiation emitted by the irradiated material after or during the irradiation. Next to education and training, neutron activation analysis is the most widely used application of research reactors. Almost any reactor operating at 10-30 kilowatt of thermal power is capable of providing a sufficient neutron flux to irradiate samples for selective applications of this analysis technique. Another method of NAA by using two Am-Be isotopic neutron sources of activity 5 Ci were used in this investigation. The accomplished gamma rays were measured using 70 % HPGe spectrometer. This work demand to estimate the elements contained in cement products and its quality control. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) measurements were done for confirming our results, and for determining the average neutron flux of 3.7× 10<sup>3</sup> n/cm<sup>2</sup>sec. The Natural radioactivities of these samples were measured before the analysis to know the background level of <sup>40</sup>K, <sup>238</sup>U and<sup>232</sup>Th nuclei. The results investigated that NAA agree with the results of XRF and the world range of the cement concentration of the essential elements Ca, Al, Na, Fe, Mn, V, Sr and Si.</p> Tarek Mohamed Talaat Salama N. A. Mansour M. Fayez-Hassan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-30 2018-07-30 14 2 5564 5573 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7507 Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstructions Technique (ASIR) Impact on Both Image Quality and Dose in CT Chest Examination <p>The main objective of the presented study was to estimate the influence of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm on image and dose Image Quality in Chest CT (Computed tomography) examination compared with the FBP (Filter back projection) techniques.</p> Mariam Isam Ayman Mokhtar A. Abdelrazek Sabry EL Mogy A.H. Oraby ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-31 2018-07-31 14 2 5574 5585 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7510 Contaminations of Radioactive Nuclides of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in Tin Ore <p>Tin ore plays a vital role in several industries. Tin ore could contain natural radioactive nuclides of <sup>238</sup>U, <sup>232</sup>Th, and <sup>40</sup>K with various concentrations which might be caused a significant exposure radiation levels to the workers who handle the Tin ore in the factory. Thus, the evaluation of natural radioactive nuclides <sup>238</sup>U, <sup>232</sup>Th, and <sup>40</sup>K in the Tin ore is important from the point of view of radiation protection to save the workers from the radiation hazards.</p> Tarek Mohamed Talaat Salama ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-31 2018-07-31 14 2 5586 5593 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7557 Linear Operator and Spontaneous Breaking in PT -Symmetry <p>We study spectral behaviour of linear operator using matrix diagonalisation method and notice that spectral breaking is an inherent behaviour in PT -symmetry .</p> Prachiprava Mohapatra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-01 2018-08-01 14 2 5594 5597 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7524 Nano Crystallites and Clustered Species in Modified Sodium Telluride Glasses <p>The structural properties, crystalline and &nbsp;clustering&nbsp; behavior of <em>x</em>Na<sub>2</sub>O·(1-<em>x</em>)TeO<sub>2</sub> (15 £ <em>x</em> £ 65 mol% glasses have been investigated by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning&nbsp;&nbsp; electron microscopy (SEM ). The experimental results have demonstrated that the basic structural units in telluride&nbsp;glasses&nbsp;change from highly strained&nbsp;TeO<sub>4</sub> trigonal bipyramids to more regular&nbsp;TeO<sub>3</sub>&nbsp;units containing non bridging oxygen atoms (NBO). The concentration of NBO atoms in telluride network increases with &nbsp;increasing? Na<sub>2</sub>O content. The present results suggest that (NBO) atoms in telluride&nbsp;glasses&nbsp; exist in&nbsp; their pure form in glasses of up to 35 mol% Na<sub>2</sub>O.&nbsp; But at higher Na<sub>2</sub>O concentrations, NBO atoms do not exist in their pure form; that is, &nbsp;the majority of &nbsp;NBO atoms &nbsp;are coordinated with high concentration from Na cations&nbsp; to form&nbsp; nano-crystalline clusters. The &nbsp;results based on &nbsp;X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and &nbsp;differential scanning calomerty (DSC) reveal the presence of two crystalline phases: ? TeO2 &nbsp;and &nbsp;&nbsp;Na<sub>2</sub>Te<sub>4</sub>O<sub>9</sub> phases during the crystallization process of the prepared glass in the region &lt; 50 mol% Na<sub>2</sub>O. But&nbsp; at higher Na<sub>2</sub>O concentrations, Na<sub>2</sub>Te<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> and NaTeO<sub>3</sub> crystalline clustered phase&nbsp; in the nono size scale are the dominant type. This means that NBO in &nbsp;TeO<sub>3</sub>&nbsp;trigonal pyramids will interact with the excess of Na cation resulting in the three-dimensional network containing nano size clusters&nbsp; particularly in telluride&nbsp;glasses&nbsp; containing 50 and 65 mol% Na<sub>2</sub>O. An increase in Na<sub>2</sub>O concentration in Na<sub>2</sub>O-rich telluride&nbsp; network results in increasing Na coordination instead of breaking more tellurium–oxygen bonds.</p> Amal Behairy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-14 2018-08-14 14 2 5587 5597 10.24297/jap.v14i2.7523