JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS Interested in submitting to this journal? We recommend that you review About the Journal page for the journal's section policies, as well as the Author Guidelines. Authors need to register with the journal prior to submitting or, if already registered, can simply log in and begin the five-step process. Khalsa Publications en-US JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS 2347-3487 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> The Cause To The Tides <p>Current theories towards the cause of the tides show to be contrary to the laws of nature and that of motion. The correct version for the tides are herewith shown with supporting evidence.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Leonard Van Zanten ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 16 1 1 7 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8114 Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of MnO2 / MWCNTs/PVA Nanocomposite <p>Manganese dioxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes MnO<sub>2</sub>/ MWCNTs nanocomposite are synthesized by hydrothermal method. The crystallographic information of the acid-treated MWCNTs and the MnO<sub>2</sub>/ modified MWCNTs nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),Transmission electron microscope (TEM )and &nbsp;FT-IR spectra. Optical and electrical properties of MnO<sub>2</sub> / MWCNTs / PVA nanocomposite thin film with different concentration were studied .UV-VIS absorption spectra shift, at different exposing time , indicated the sensitivity to UV radiation. Optical band gap decreases with increasing time of radiation. &nbsp;Electrical properties of MnO<sub>2</sub> / MWCNTs / PVA nanocomposite thin films with different concentration according to different frequency and exposing time of UV radiation &nbsp;&nbsp;showed semiconducting properties and sensitivity to UV radiation.</p> Safaa Kamel Elmahy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-28 2019-02-28 16 1 8 18 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8083 Synopsis and Review: Algebraic Quantum Theory of Consciousness by Elio Conte <p>Algebraic Quantum Theory of Consciousness</p> <p>A Solution to the Problem of Quantum Collapse in Systems Having Three Anticommuting Elements</p> <p>ISBN 978-88-255-1707-1, formato 17 x 24 cm, 112 pagine, 14 euro</p> Elio Conte Rich Norman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-08 2019-03-08 16 1 19 20 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8110 Deterministic Irreversibility and The Matter Structure <p>The role of existence of the deterministic irreversibility mechanism in development of evolution physics is studied. The short explanation of physical essence of this mechanism &nbsp;is offered. Based on this mechanism, is proved, that the base element of matter should be an open non-equilibrium dynamic system (ONDS). The principles of the emergence, existence and development of the ONDS hierarchical structure are considered. The questions&nbsp; about hierarchy of the matter and existence of stationary states ONDS are studied. The question, how external constraints determine of the evolution of ONDS, is analyzed. Equations that determine the development of ONDS are submitted.</p> Vyacheslav Michailovich Somsikov ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-12 2019-03-12 16 1 21 33 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8109 Law of gravity <p>This essay introduces a realistic look at our laws of gravity, and the effects thereof, and it goes beyond to reveal how and by what gravity comes about in the fundamentals of nature upon which the earth and all spheres rest.</p> Leonard Van Zanten ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-13 2019-03-13 16 1 34 45 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8164 By A Law of Motion into The Cause of Gravity <p>This is an essay written by me when I was yet in my younger years, since then I have simplified the same in several other papers. It intrigues me in my old age now to behold my state of mind in those days long ago.</p> <p>This essay is a review into the fundamentals of the laws of motion, showing the cause to gravitational force to come about in the same laws by which it is governed.&nbsp; We then may be intrigued to behold how this gravitational force finds its birth by way of “movement into movement upon a twofold inertia".&nbsp; And while it may seem acceptable to us that objects are attracted unto one another proportional to their masses, the evidence in both law and experiment are stacked against it.&nbsp; Hence, the property of mass that gives rise to its force of attraction is found to be “its own movement".</p> Leonard Van Zanten ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 16 1 46 54 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8184 Spectroscopy and Conductivity Studies of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA)/Polypyrrol (Ppy) Nanocomposite with Various Chloride Metals to Improved Properties of the Polymers <p>Polyvinyl alcohol- polypyrrole (PVA-PPy) nanocomposites with metal chlorides (FeCl<sub>3</sub>, NiCl<sub>2</sub>, CuCl<sub>2</sub> and ZnCl<sub>2</sub>) have been synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization method. These synthesized nanocomposites are characterized by using FTIR, X-ray diffraction, Transition electron microscope (TEM) and Conductivity measurement. TEM exhibit that all of the composites have uniform sizes and morphologies.&nbsp; The diameter of PVA/PPy nanocompsite is 58nm when the metals added to the PVA/PPy the diameters becomes smaller. The variation of electrical conductivity (log ?) with 1000/T for PVA/PPy nanocomposite with metal chlorides revealed that the increase in conductivity s at temperature (393K) with added metals can be attributed to the creation of induced charge carriers in PVA/PPy matrix</p> Naglaa Shahin Reham Kamal Abd El Hamid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 16 1 55 63 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8192 Diurnal and Seasonal Variations of Equivalent Slab thickness over Low and Mid Latitude Regions <p>The equivalent slab-thickness&nbsp; is very important in the study of the complex dynamics of the ionosphere as a result of its ability to determine the skewness of the ionospheric electron density profile. This study involves the day to day and monthly variations of . Ionosonde &nbsp;(FoF2) and Total electron content (TEC) data at the low latitude station of Sao Luis (Glat 2.60° S, Glong 315.80° E and Mlat 6.05° N and Mlong 28.40° E), Brazil and mid latitude station of Chilton (Glat 51.50° N, Glong 359.40° E and Mlat 53.35° N and Mlong 84.34° E), United Kingdom from January 2013 to December 2015 were used in the study of &nbsp;. For Sao Luis station, the diurnal pattern for the different days are characterized by day time (08:00 – 16:00 UT) high values and nighttime (20:00 – 04:00 UT) low values; however, Chilton shows signatures, such as day time low values and nighttime high values. Also, the daytime values (~600 km) of &nbsp;for the low latitude station (Sao Luis) is more than double the mid latitude station (Chilton) maximum value (~235 km) over the years considered. The monthly variation of &nbsp;also indicate a seasonal variation with highest daytime values (400 km) during winter months and lowest (below 300 km) during summer months for the low latitude station (Sao Luis). However, the nighttime values are of the same order (about 200 km) for the low latitude station (Sao Luis). Also, highest daytime values (above 250 km) are observed during summer months and the nighttime values are below 200 km over the years for the mid latitude station (Chilton).</p> Temitope Pascal Owolabi Emmanuel Ariyibi Olatunbosun Lilian Ayomide O Olabode ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-05 2019-05-05 16 1 64 78 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8229 Effect of Terbium Additions on Microstructural, Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Eutectic Sn-3.5Ag Pb- Free Solder for Low Cost Electronic Assembly <p>This work methodically concentrated on the effect of a trace amount of rare earth element terbium, Tb (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 wt. %) on the properties of eutectic Sn-3.5 wt. %Ag were studied. The results indicated that addition of Tb rare earth can be refined the microstructure of the solder and intermetallic compound (IMC) Ag3Sn phase appeared in the solder matrix. Add a few quantity of rare earth Tb enhances the hardness and strength of eutectic Sn-Ag lead free solder joint. Also, results indicate that adding Tb to the eutectic Sn-3.5Ag remarkably enhances solderability, reliability, thermal and mechanical properties. It is also found that increasing in mechanical strength can depend on crystalline size refining in addition to some regular precipitates from IMC, Ag3Sn.</p> Rizk Mostafa Shalaby Fatma Elzahraa Ibrahim Mostafa Kamal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-05 2019-05-05 16 1 79 94 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8239 Atomic Quantum Galvanomagnetism Theory <p>The establishment of galvanomagnetics properties inside the atom takes place here, giving sense, on axiomatic form, to a part of these properties. Some concepts are readjusted: quantum gravity is corrected and replaced by its real significance, and the atom pieces are identified through different quantum paths, among other things.</p> Pedro Aragon ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-06 2019-05-06 16 1 95 110 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8231 The Correlation Between Fluxes of Balmer Emission Lines of H? and H? and Colors of a Galaxy in VNIR Region <p><strong>ABSTRACT </strong></p> <p>We have studied the correlation between the flux and colors of a galaxy sample from SDSS, Data Release 13 as measured by the standard Balmer decrement technique in both visible and near-infrared region, covering the spectral region from (4500-8500) A<sup>o</sup>.</p> <p>We analyzed the spectral properties of the sample in the three (g, r, i) optical bands and found that the main sample tends to be redder which gives an indication that the sample has higher metallicity or older age.</p> <p>We carried out the standard procedures IRAF software package to get a deeper insight into the flux in H<sub>β</sub> and H<sub>α</sub> wavelengths range.</p> <p>We have concluded that the distribution of H- Beta and H- alpha line profiles is Gaussian in the two regions.</p> <p>We found also a linear correlation between Balmer decrement (H<sub>α</sub> /H<sub>β</sub> ) in lognormal units and the rest frame colors of the sample with the best fit of 3.4764.</p> <p>&nbsp;Mean and root means square (rms) profiles of H<sub>β</sub> and H<sub>α</sub> shows a maximum peak in the red region at the radial velocity of 1000km/s and the profiles were high symmetry in this region.</p> Layali AL-Mashhadani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-06 2019-05-06 16 1 111 118 10.24297/jap.v16i1.7390 Study on MHD Cylindrical Couette Flow and Rheological Properties of Some Magnetic Suspensions <p>The study of magnetic suspensions (MS) and magnetic field effects on their rheological properties is of evident practical importance due to its ability to orient and change their physical properties, especially their viscosity, by magnetic fields. This research presents the effect of a uniform magnetic field on the flow of MS in the annular region between two concentric cylinders. The motion of the fluid is due to the rotation of the inner cylinder with a constant angular velocity. An exact solution of the governing equations is obtained in the form of modified Bessel functions of the first and second kinds. The torque, which must be applied to the inner cylinder in order to maintain the rotation, is also calculated. The results show that as the magnetic parameter increases, the velocity profile decreases, while the torque increases due to the effect of magnetic force against the flow direction.</p> <p>In order to model the magnetoviscous effects, experiments were performed for different shear rates and different magnetic field strengths by using specially designed rheometers. The studied samples are iron oxide-water-glycerol system, &nbsp;ferrofluid nanoparticles, MAG DX biocompatible ferrofluid. The theoretical analysis is based on Giesekus model for MS. This model gives more accurate results and takes into account the effects of viscoelastic shear thinning characteristics. It is found that a magnetic field increases the viscosity of all suspensions under consideration. Finally, new proposed correlation for the viscosity of MS as a function of both shear rate and magnetic field has been suggested.</p> S.E. E. Hamza ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-06 2019-05-06 16 1 119 140 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8237 Do Black Holes Really Exist? <p>This article offers a brief critical research of the origins that gave rise to the theory of black holes and the ground on which it is based. The aim is to highlight some contradictions in the interior of the theory itself, which could seriously question their existence.</p> Luciano M.R. Rota ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-13 2019-05-13 16 1 141 144 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8214 Nature of The Atom <p>The atom as a subject is the most difficult of all subjects and for its many variations extremely large and the most incomprehensive of all phenomena. Nor so I fear will we ever come to a full understanding of it, nor even the half thereof. Yet we must make a start somewhere to learn the principle fashion of its nature and operation that for what I have seen is mostly misunderstood.</p> <p>I now am not enabled to reveal what exactly the atom is, nor how it precisely operates under all conditions, but I am able to grant us a more realistic look into the nature of the atomic nature.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Leonard Van Zanten ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-20 2019-05-20 16 1 145 155 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8270 The Effect of Suction and Injection on MHD Flow Between Two Porous Concentric Cylinders Filled with Porous Medium <p>This Paper deals wit the effects of suction (injection) on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) steady flow of a viscous and electrically conducting fluid in an annular porous region between two concentric cylinders. The inner cylinder is rotating with uniform angular velocity and the outer one is fixed. The two cylinders are&nbsp; porous with uniform permeability. It is assumed that the suction rate at the inner cylinder is equal to the injection rate at the outer cylinder. A uniform axial magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the flow direction. The flow resistance presented by the porous medium is governed by the Darcy law. By using similarity transformation, the governing partial differential equations have been transformed to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The solution of the obtained system in its general form has been obtained. Analytical expression for velocity field is obtained in terms of Bessel function of first and second kind. The effects of various parameters such as susction (injection), magnetic and permeability parameters on the flow are discussed and the obtained results are presented graphically. The obtained figures show that, the velocity distribution increased with the increase of permeability parameter of the the porous medium and with suction process. On the other hand, the velocity distribution decreased with the increase of magnetic parameter and with injection parameter.</p> S.E. E. Hamza ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-20 2019-05-20 16 1 156 170 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8273 Indentation Creep and Microstructure Properties of Sn-Ag Solder Alloys <p>The microstructure and micro-hardness of Sn-3.5wt.5%Ag, Sn-3.5wt.%Ag-0.27wt.%Ti and Sn-3.5wt.%Ag-0.27wt.%Cd treated at 75, 100, 125 and 150<sup>o</sup>C were studied. The microstructure characteristics of the tested alloys had been investigated using optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The impression creep had been carried out using Vickers micro-hardness indenter under different loads (10, 50 and 100gm). The stress exponent values were found to be varied from 3.2 to 8.4. The energy activating the creep processes support dislocation climb as the rate controlling mechanism. The dislocation mobility was restricted due to the agglomerations of the Ag3Sn eutectic phase in the above three solders. Whereas; the presence of the twinning of ?-Sn phase, and the dispersion of fine CdSn1.9 IMCs throughout Sn-3.5wt.%Ag-0.27wt.%Cd made strongly blockage of the dislocation motion.</p> Amal Mohamed Yassin B.A. Khalifa R. Afify Ismail ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-20 2019-05-20 16 1 171 184 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8243 Preparation and Characterization of Curcumin Loaded Dextrin Sulfate- Chitosan Nanoparticles for Promoting Curcumin Anticancer Activity <p>Curcumin as a natural medicinal agent has been proved to kill cancer cells effectively. However, its biomedical applications have been hindered owing to its poor bioavailability. Many nanoparticulate systems have been introduced to overcome this problem. Among this types polymeric-based nanoparticles which exhibit unique properties allowing their use as a efficient drug carrier. Developing a polymeric- blend nanoparticles will offer a promising nanocarrier with excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and low immunogencity.</p> <p>In this study, curcumin nano-vehicle has been made up by combining dextren sulfate and chitosan (DSCSNPs). DSCSNPs have been characterized using different techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) which revealed the spherical, smooth surface of the nano-formulation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) for measuring DSCSNPs hydrodynamic- diameter. Zeta potential measurements showed nanoparticles high stability. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed &nbsp;successful combination between the two polymers and curcumin loading on naoparticles surface. Curcumin release profile out of DSCSNPs showed high drug release in tumor acidic microenvironment. In vitro cytotoxicity measurements demonstrated that curcumin loaded polymeric nanoparticles (DSCSNPs-Cur) have high therapeutic efficacy against colon (HCT-116) and breast &nbsp;(MCF-7) cancer cells compared with free curcumin. &nbsp;DSCSNPs as a combined biopolymers is an excellent candidate for improving curcumin bioavailability &nbsp;allowing its use as anticancer &nbsp;agent.</p> Nihal S Elbialy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 16 1 185 195 10.24297/jap.v16i1.8276