Concentration and size distribution of biological particles in school classrooms
Fungal and bacterial aerosol particles concentrations are measured in a school classrooms at two different floors using the 6-stage Andersen impactor as a bioaersol sampler. The average bacterial concentration is higher than the average fungal concentration. The concentrations were 957 and 955 cfu/m3 for bacterial particles at first and second floors, respectively while the fungal particles concentrations were 146 and 235 cfu/m3 at first and second floors, respectively. Most of the biological particles were concentrated at the size range of respirable particles (< 5 Âµm ) that can penetrate into the alveoli and may cause lung diseases. The human activity is a main factor for the production of microbiological particles. Environmental factors play also a role on the fungal growth. Bacterial concentration is almost twice the guide value of WHO while the fungal concentration is underestimation.
 Yassin M, F, Almouqatea S. Assessment of airborne bacteria and fungi in an indoor and outdoor environment. Int J Environ Sci Tech 2010; 7 (3): 535-544.
 Anthony K, Y, Law, Chau C, K, Gilbert Y, S, Chan. Characteristics of bioaerosol profile in office buildings in Hong Kong. Build and Environ 2001; 36: 527-541.
 Zhou J, Fang W, Cao Q, Yang L, V. W.-C. Chang V, W, C, Nazaroff W, W. Influence of moisturizer and relative humidity on human emissions of fluorescent biological aerosol particles. Indoor Air 2017; 27: 587â€“598.
 Fracchia L, Pietronave S, Rinaldi M, Martinotti M, G. The assessment of airborne bacterial contamination in three compositing plants revealed site related biological hazard and seasonal variations. J Appl Microbiol 2006; 100 (5): 973-984.
 Bornehag C, Sundell J, Sigsgaard T. Dampness in buildings and health (DBH): Report from an ongoing epidemiological investigation on the association between indoor environmental factors and health effects among children in Sweden. Indoor Air 2004; 14 (Suppl. S7): 59â€“66.
 Zuraimi M, S, Tham K,W. Indoor air quality and its determinants in tropical child care centers. Atmos Environ 2008; 42: 2225â€“2239.
 Reponen S, A, Grinshpun K, L, Conwell J. Aerodynamic versus physical size of spores: measurement and implication for respiratory deposition. Grana 2004; 40 (3):119-125.
 Ahmed M, M. theoretical deposition of fungal aerosol particles in the human respiratoty tract. J Adv Res 2012; 3: 133-138.
 Hinds W, C. Aerosol Technology, Properties, Behavior, and Measurement of Airborne Particles. 1999; 2nd edn. Wiley, New York.
 Nikaeen M, Hatamzadeh M, Hatamzadeh A, Sahami E, Joodan I. Bioaerosol emissions arising during application of municipal solid waste compost. Aerobiologia 2009; 25:1-6.
 Hospodsky D, Yamamoto N, Nazaroff W, W, Miller D, Gorthala S, Peccia J. Characterizing airbornefungal and bacterial concentrations and emission ratesin six occupied children's classrooms. Indoor air 2015; 25: 641-652.
 Fox A, Harley W, Feigley C, Salzberg, D, Toole C, Sebastian A, et al. Large particles are responsible for elevated bacterial marker levels in school air upon occupation. J Environ Monit 2005; 7: 450-456.
 Chunxiao S, Josephine L, Fang Y. A case study of upper-room UVGI in
densely-occupied elementary classrooms by real-time fluorescent bioaerosol measurements. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017; 14 (51): 1-11.
 Jozef S, P, Kyaw Tha Paw U, Danuta O, L, Agnieszka W, Krzysztof U. Bacterial and fungal aerosol in indoor environment in upper Silesia, Poland. Atmos Environ 2000; 34: 3833-3842.
 WHO (World Health Organization). Guidelines for concentration and exposure-response measurements of fine and ultra fine particulate matter for use in epidemiological studies, Geneva, Switzerland 2002.
 Lee T, Grinshpun S, A, Martuzevicius D, Adhikari A, Crawford C, M, Reponen T. Culturability and concentration of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi in sex single-family homes. Atmos Environ 2006; 40: 2902-2910.
 Mirhoseini S, H, Nikaeen M, Satoh K, Makimura K. Assessment ofairborne particles in indoor environments: Applicability of particle counting for prediction of bioaerosol concentrations. Aerosol and Air Qua res 2016; 16: 1903-1910.
 Mentese S, Arisoy M, Rad A, Y, Gullu G. Bacteria and fungi levels in various indoor and outdoor environments in Ankara, Turkey. CLEAN 2009; 37: 487-493.
 Pegas P, N, Evtyugina G, Alves C, A, Nunes, T, Cerqueira M, Franchi M, et al. Outdoor/indoor airquality in primary schools in Lisbon: A preliminary study. Quim Nova 2010; 33: 1145-1149.
 Chao H, J, Schwartz J, Milton D, K, Burge H, A. Populations and determinants of airborne fungi in large office buildings. Environ Health Perspect 2002; 110: 777-782.
 Bonetta S, Mosso S, Sampo S, Carraro E. Assessment of microbiological indoor air quality in an Italian office building equipped with an HVAC. Environ Monit Assess 2010; 161: 473-483.
 Hargreaves M, Parappukkaran S, Morawska L, Hitchins J, He C, Gilbert D. A pilot investigation into associations between indoor airborne fungal and non-biological particle concentrations in residential houses in Brisbane, Australia. Sci Total Environ 2003; 312: 89-101.
 Hass D, Habib J, Galler H, Buzina W, Schlacher R, Marth E, et al. Assessmentof indoor air in Austrian apartments with and without visible mold growth. Atmos Environ 2007; 41: 5192-5201.
Copyright (c) 2017 JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN PHYSICS
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.