Critical Review of Main Cosmogonic Theories
Big Bang theory postulates the red shift of light coming from distant galaxies is caused by the Doppler Effect. Like Plato’s astronomy, Big Bang theory has to be continuously propped up by countless patches in order to deal with new observations. Plato’s astronomy required countless epicycles within epicycles. Big Bang requires patches such as dark energy, dark matter, cosmic inflation, accelerating expansion of the Universe and countless revisions of Hubble’s constant. In addition, this theory and the fundamental law of mass and energy conservation are mutually exclusive; according to Big Bank all energy and mass appeared suddenly out of nothing. There are of course Big Bang versions that try not to contradict the conservation law. Such theories postulate a multi-verse populated by an infinite number of Universes or an infinite number of Universe instances. In other words, either the most basic law of physics or Occam’s razor must be rejected in the most outrageous manner possible because otherwise the Doppler Effect cannot be used to explain the cosmic red shift.
For these reasons, some astronomers promoted the stationary Universe theory and assumed that photons lose a significant amount of energy while traversing intergalactic distances and therefore suffer a red shift. This assumption is the basis of all Tired Light theories. According to Tired Light, photon energy loss is caused by collisions with other objects such as gas molecules or dust. As a result, this theory was quickly dismissed, because this loss mechanism cannot explain the broadening of supernova spectra, the variable rate of photon frequency decay and the fact that the image of distant objects is not blurred. Subsequently other versions of Tired Light theories were ignored because supposedly any other loss mechanism is not compatible with GTR field equations. According to these equations, when the photon structure is ignored, the energy momentum-tensor of a photon moving freely through space is constant. Experiments with laser beams show this conclusion is not exactly true. Therefore even free photons actually lose some minute amount of energy. What physical mechanism may explain this loss? A simple experiment with a common object will immediately reveal this mechanism. Internal interactions are the main mechanism responsible for the gradual dampening of spring oscillations and loss of energy, not collisions with other objects. When damping of photon oscillations caused by internal friction is considered, a new version of Tired Light can be formulated; a version that is validated by all astronomic observations without recourse to any patches and without rejecting the law of energy and mass conservation or Occam’s razor.
2. Hubble, E. A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 15, issue. 3, March 15 1929, pp. 168-173.
3. Steinhardt and Turok, N, Endless Universe, Beyond the Big Bang, Doubleday, 2007, pp. 7, 13, 150-167.
4. Carr, B, editor, Universe or Multiverse, Cambridge University Press, 2007, Pp. 29-41, 57-240.
5. Tsujikawa, S., Introductory review of cosmic inflation, lecture notes given at The Second Tah Poe School on Cosmology "Modern Cosmology", Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand, April 17 -25, 2003.
6. Zalta, E.N, Nodelman, U et al, Simplicity, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, December 20 2016.
7. Zwicky, F. 1929. On the Red Shift of Spectral Lines through Interstellar Space. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 15, issue 10, 773–779.
8. Evans, Myron W. and Vigier, J. P. , The Enigmatic Photon: Theory and Practice of the B3 Field. Springer. 1996, p. 29.
9. Lubin, L. M. and Sandage, A, "The Tolman Surface Brightness Test for the Reality of the Expansion. IV. A Measurement of the Tolman Signal and the Luminosity Evolution of Early-Type Galaxies," Astronomical Journal, 2001, vol. 122, pp. 1084-1103.
10. Lubin, L. M. and Sandage, A, "The Tolman Surface Brightness Test for the Reality of the Expansion. II. The Effect of the Point-Spread Function and Galaxy Ellipticity on the Derived Photometric Parameters," Astronomical Journal 2001, vol. 121 pp. 2289-2300.
11. Lubin, L. M. and Sandage, A,, "The Tolman Surface Brightness Test for the Reality of the Expansion. III. Hubble Space Telescope Profile and Surface Brightness Data for Early-Type Galaxies in Three High-Red shift Clusters," Astronomical Journal 2001, vol. 122 pp. 1071-1083.
12. Bonvin, V., Courbin, F. et al, New COSMOGRAIL time delays of HE 0435-1223: H0 to 3.8 per cent precision from lensing in a flat ACDM model, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, November 22 2016.
13. Woosley, S. E., Kasen, D. et al, Type Ia Supernova Light Curves, The Astronomical Journal, vol. 662, pp: 487-503, June 10 2007.
14. Page, N. D., Particle emission rates from a black hole: Massless particles from an uncharged, non-rotating hole, Physical Review, D, vol., 13, p. 198, January 15 1976.
15. Einstein, A., “Die Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativtätstheorie”, Annalen der Physic, t49, p. 769, 1916.
16. Fock, V.A., “Teoria Spatiului, Timpului si Gravitatiei”, Editura Academiei Romane, Bucuresti, 1962, pp. 47, 176, 178, 193, 201, 247, 299, 300.
17. Rancourt, L. Effect of Light on Gravitational Attraction, Physics Essays, December 2011, vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 557-561.
18. Ratzel, D., Wilkens, M. and Menzel, R., Gravitational properties of light – the gravitational field of a laser pulse, New Journal of Physics, Vol. 18, 023009, January 29, 2016.
19. Bonnor, W. B., The gravitational field of photons, General Relativity and Gravitation, vol. 41, January 2009, pp. 77-85.
20. Blanchet L., Damour T., Bala R. I., Clifford M. W., Wiseman A. G., “Gravitational-Radiation Damping of Compact Binary Systems to Second Post-Newtonian Order”, In Physical Review Letters, Volume 74, Number 18, p.3515, 1 May 1996.
21. Abbott, B. P., et. al, Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger, Physical Review Letters, No. 116, 061102, February 11 2016.
22. Martin McCall, Classical Mechanics: From Newton to Einstein: A Modern Introduction, 2nd edition, Willey, 2011, pp. 44-50.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.