JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN LINGUISTICS https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal Interested in submitting to this journal? We recommend that you review the About the Journal page for the journal's section policies, as well as the Author Guidelines. Authors need to register with the journal prior to submitting or, if already registered, can simply log in and begin the five-step process. en-US <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> jal@cirworld.com (Ghayth Al-Shaibani) editor@cirworld.com (John Miller) Wed, 28 Feb 2018 13:21:05 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 The Narration Method Of “Story Speech” In The Novel “Mawsim Al-Hijraila Al-Shamal”(Seasons Of Migration To The North) By Tayeb Salih https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/6693 <p>The speech of characters is one of the important elements of story as it defines the thoughts of the story and it can promote the events of story. A narrator transfers the speech from the author to the reader and it is manifested as “The narration methods of story speeches”. The story speeches are dived into five groups as direct, indirect, free direct and free indirect and narrative report. In the famous novel “Mawsim al-Hijraila alShamal” by “Tayeb Salih”, contemporary Sudani author, the mentioned methods are manifested based on narrative situation of story. The story is started with the first-person view and the narrator presents the report and other methods are dominant as the characters are increased. The present study is a descriptive-analytic design showing that the direct speech is highly frequent in the novel.</p> Masoud Bavanpouri, Amir Moqaddam Mottaqi, Abdolahad Ghaibi, Hadiseh Motavali ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/6693 Wed, 28 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Ghawa Syndrome in Kuwaiti-Arabic Verbs https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/6984 <p>The “Ghawa Syndrome” is a well-known linguistic phenomenon in the Arabian Gulf. In this phenomenon, the first open syllabus of a word is re-syllabified. The current study investigates the occurrence of this linguistic feature in Kuwaiti verbs within the variation of accents in the speech of two ethnic groups (Najdis and Ajamis) and three generations. The ethnicity factor was believed to play a major role in the linguistic feature under investigation due to their varying social and economic status. 48 Kuwaiti individuals represented the two investigated ethnicities and three age groups (chosen according to relevant milestones in the history of Kuwait), and with an equal number of males and females participating in data collection. Three different techniques of data collection were utilized (picture-naming, map task, interview &amp; questionnaires). The results reflected an increase in the use of the Ghawa Syndrome across generations in the Ajami group, while the Najdi dialect was rather stable. This linguistic familiarity seems to affect the two ethnicities, bringing them closer to each other.</p> Hanan A. Taqi ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/6984 Wed, 28 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Archaeolinguistics as a Way to Overcome the Impasse in Comparative Linguistics https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/6730 <p>The paper exposes some essential points of our one and a half decade research results within new approach to study prehistoric stages of human language development mainly in times of ergaster-erectus domination and reflects our reaction to the protracted conceptual crisis in the comparative linguistics. As a result of fundamentally incorrectly stated goals, most of the researchers artificially limited themselves both by the defined scope of the problems to&nbsp;solve and by the methods used. Becoming tightly tied knot of up to now unsolved intrinsic contradictions, today&nbsp;comparative linguistics&nbsp;needs radical change. We have developed a synthetic approach that has proved its effectiveness. Our model is well aligned with prehistoric data of auxiliary historical disciplines and even IBM&nbsp;Genographic&nbsp;project. The results offer further opportunities for interesting studies.</p> Wolodymyr Hlib Kozyrski, Alexander Victor Malovichko ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/6730 Wed, 28 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Grammatical Errors in Debate Arguments Made by Students of Global English Language Center https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/7324 <p>The thesis entitled <em>Grammatical Errors in Debate Arguments Made by the Students of</em> <em>Global English Language Center</em>. The objectives of this study were (1) to find out the kinds of errors made by the students of Global English Language Center in their debate arguments and (2) to find out the causes of errors made by the students of Global English Language Center in their debate arguments. The writer used descriptive-qualitative method of research. The population of this study was all the students of Global English Language Center. The sample was chosen by using purposive sampling. The samples were 12 students which were grouped into two debate sessions. The data were calculated and analyzed based on surface strategy taxonomy and linguistic category taxonomy to know the errors. Samples' personal reasons and personal judgement were used to know the causes of the errors. The findings showed that there were four types of errors that the students made which are omission, addition, misformation, and misordering. Misformation is the major error made by the students. Nervousness, time limit, native language interference, and the insufficient grammar learning were the causes why the students made errors.</p> Adina Nikmawati, Indawan Syahri, Rini Susanti ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/7324 Mon, 30 Apr 2018 05:48:34 +0000 Translation of Film Titles Based on Intercultural Communication https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/7349 <p>To illustrate cultural differences between China and the western world in translating film titles. Film industry plays a vital role in cultural communications, especially in the trend of globalization, which attaches a greater importance to film title translation than ever before. &nbsp;Some of theories concerning cultural differences will be discussed, including Hall's high-context and Low-context orientations and Hofstede's value dimensions. The study finds that with the help of these theories, certain translation methods can be utilized by translators in order to do a better job when translating titles of imported films.</p> Jing Qin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/7349 Mon, 30 Apr 2018 05:48:41 +0000 Jale Ghaemmaghmi: An Outstanding Social- Political Poet in Contemporary Persian https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/7203 <p>Jale Ghaemmaghmi is the late Ghajar and first Pahlavi poet who has social-political thought and is the outstanding poet among female poets. However, she is anonymous as the consequence of her limitation in her life. By studying her poems, it is found that her social-political thought is in line with some famous thinkers such as Dehkhoda, Bahar and Kasravi. She has more social poems in comparison to Forugh Farokhzad. This paper aims at investigating her thought by categorizing her poems to introduce the hidden layers of her thought to contemporary researchers in literature and sociology.</p> Raha Zareifard, Mehdi Rezaei ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/7203 Mon, 30 Apr 2018 05:48:47 +0000 The Semantic Comprehension of Persian Endocentric and Exocentric Compounds in non-Persian Speakers https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/7351 <p>Semantic comprehension of Persian compound nouns in non-Persian speakers of TPSL department was investigated using a cognitive-semantics approach. Regarding the semantic relationships between the bases of compound nouns, two were selected based on presence or lack of semantic head. Then, sufficient data were collected from different texts through a desk research method to make a frequency dictionary of endocentric and exocentric compound nouns based on the knowledge level of students. A definition-word pairing test was then selected and most frequent compound nouns (24 compound nouns) were identified and used for the test, developed and run in the form of an application for smart phones by an application developer and participants were provided with it. Overall, 888 data were collected from the test results and analyzed using standard statistical tests suggesting that due to presence of semantic head in endocentric compounds, speed and level of comprehending them was higher than exocentric compounds; moreover, a correlational relationship between comprehension of these compounds was identified. Therefore, the relationship between components of endocentric compounds was understood faster than exocentric compounds. Thus, applicability of CARIN theory was verified.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sara Montazeri, Ali Afkhami, Atiyeh Kamyabi Gol ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/7351 Mon, 30 Apr 2018 06:14:34 +0000 A Linguistic History of Iraqi Arabic (Mesopotamian Arabic) https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/7391 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The objective of this work is to investigate the linguistic structure of Iraqi Arabic or what is known as Mesopotamian Arabic. The paper presents an overview of some of the fundamental analyses of Iraqi Arabic - Mesopotamian Arabic. This article is concentrated on the most important parts of the language which are the phonological, morphological, and syntactical features.</p> <p>The paper not only examines the linguistic feature of Iraqi Arabic but it also, discusses how Iraqi Arabic dialect is different from Modern Standard Arabic with data that are not considered before and with certain new theoretical proposals.<br>The researcher analysis the three dialects, which are Baghdadi, Southern, and Maslawi dialect and provides an important data for each dialect. Unlike Modern Standard Arabic, Iraqi Arabic went through many changes.</p> <p>Phonologically, Iraqi Arabic has more consonants than Modern Standard Arabic, and a few additional long vowels. Many sounds have been replaced with different sounds. In addition, the words in Iraqi Arabic does not end with vowels. Therefore, words end with consonants rather than vowels in Iraqi Arabic.</p> <p>Morphologically, Iraqi Arabic is different from Modern Standard Arabic in the present progressive tense. In Iraqi Arabic, the tenses are formed by adding a prefix to the conjugated stem of the verb, which cannot be found in Modern Standard Arabic.<br>Syntactically, Iraqi Arabic differs from Modern Standard Arabic in two ways: first, there is no case marking; Iraqi Arabic does not show overt cases as it is found in Modern Standard Arabic. Second, Iraqi Arabic lacks agreement. Iraqi Arabic does not always follow the structure of verb-subject order as found in Modern Standard Arabic. The verb usually has full agreement with the subject in both orders, subject-verb, and verb-subject. Finally, Iraqi Arabic has an interesting feature which is head movement that cannot be found in Modern Standard Arabic as Soltan argues. This is can be shown in the following example: [The student seems that ____ he read the book.]<br>Among the other issues that the author discusses in this study is the history of Iraqi Arabic. In addition to the features of Iraqi Arabic and the effects of other languages, such as Turkish and Semitic languages on Iraqi dialects.</p> </div> </div> </div> Saja Albuarabi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/7391 Wed, 30 May 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Saudi EFL Learners' Response to Different Grammar Tasks https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/7099 <p>This study examines intermediate level adult EFL students in Saudi Arabia, and the effectiveness of task-based learning in relation to their understanding of English grammar. The students were given three different tasks related to negative adverbs, designed to help them learn past-tense verb forms in English. There were three groups of 20 students, all of whom were learning at the same level. The groups were:</p> <ul> <li>Selected response group (SRG, n=20)</li> <li>Constrained constructed response group (CCR, n=20)</li> <li>Storytelling group (FRG, n=20)</li> </ul> <p>Each group was given a pre-test to determine their level before the tasks, a test immediately after, and a delayed test. The selected response group (SRG) performed best on the tests, demonstrating the effectiveness of taskbased teaching in grammar acquisition. Students were chosen at random for an interview, in which their grammar knowledge was assessed. This produced results that mirrored those of the tests. It was also clear that the kinds of tasks chosen by teachers had an impact on the effectiveness of their lessons. This study provides EFL teachers with vital information they can use in learning design and lesson planning and gives EFL students information they can use to support their own learning.</p> Sami Alanazi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/7099 Wed, 13 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Identification of Stereotypes in the Artistic Text https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/7425 <p>Stereotypes are an extremely complex object of research. Mental construction cannot be static. Old stereotypes slowly change, new ones appear and with the help of various codes (linguistic, cultural, literary) the author encrypts all of this into the artistic text. Besides the existence of linguistically expressed but not linguistically fixed stereotypes in artistic texts, stable stereotypes undergo different modifications of sense and verbalization forms. The ultimate goal of the research is to identify the factors which determine the form and the meaning of stereotypes verbalizers; to carry out a functional differentiation of linguistic signs that refer to these conventional referents in Ukrainian, Polish and British realist prose. Stabilized stereotypes are fixed by nominations of different structural and semantic complexity. Within the limits of the semantic structure of a nomination there is a hierarchy of semantic features: their typicality, frequency of functioning and, hence - stereotypicality - decreases from the center towards the periphery. In the core zone, semantics of a stereotype coincides with the semantics of a prototype. Stereotypes with different degree of conventionality and communicative relevance are explicated in artistic texts with the help of structurally different nominative and communicative units.</p> Vira Burak ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/7425 Sat, 30 Jun 2018 06:05:10 +0000 A Contrastive Study of Four English Versions of Labor Contract Law of the People's Republic of China https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/7515 <p>Law is a system of rules of conduct that are created by the national legislature in accordance with the legislative procedures and are enforced by the state power. Legal language, as the manifestation of law and the carrier of the legal information, must be accurate and formal. On the ground of the special function of law, words are dedicatedly selected and used within the given field in legal texts. Some unique lexical features of legal language can be found easily to ensure the accuracy and formalness of legal texts, such as the employment of archaic words, the use of loan words and the application of formal words. The contrastive study is conducted from the lexical aspect of the four English versions of Labor Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China, with an attempt to find out the differences in formalness of the law caused by different uses of words in four versions and wish legal translators pay more attention to formality and accuracy of legal words. As for the four versions, one is taken from PKU’s legal academic sector, marked as V1 in the following comparative study. One is translated by&nbsp;Backer &amp; Mckenzie(V2), one of the biggest legal agents in the world, which functions as an introduction of Chinese government’s policies concerning labor contracts to the world. One is taken from the official website the National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China (NPC), marked as V3. And the other is taken from Shuangcheng Attorneys at Law in association with China Axis Limited, marked as V4 in the following contrastive study.</p> Mao Zhang ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/7515 Mon, 30 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0000