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Council for Innovative Research en-US JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN LINGUISTICS 2348-3024 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> Annual Reviewer Acknowledgement <p>The Editorial team of the would like to thank the reviewers for their work in referring manuscripts during 2018.</p> Kewen Zhao ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-31 2018-08-31 9 The Narration Method Of “Story Speech” In The Novel “Mawsim Al-Hijraila Al-Shamal”(Seasons Of Migration To The North) By Tayeb Salih <p>The speech of characters is one of the important elements of story as it defines the thoughts of the story and it can promote the events of story. A narrator transfers the speech from the author to the reader and it is manifested as “The narration methods of story speeches”. The story speeches are dived into five groups as direct, indirect, free direct and free indirect and narrative report. In the famous novel “Mawsim al-Hijraila alShamal” by “Tayeb Salih”, contemporary Sudani author, the mentioned methods are manifested based on narrative situation of story. The story is started with the first-person view and the narrator presents the report and other methods are dominant as the characters are increased. The present study is a descriptive-analytic design showing that the direct speech is highly frequent in the novel.</p> Masoud Bavanpouri Amir Moqaddam Mottaqi Abdolahad Ghaibi Hadiseh Motavali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-28 2018-02-28 9 1292 1297 10.24297/jal.v9i1.6693 The Ghawa Syndrome in Kuwaiti-Arabic Verbs <p>The “Ghawa Syndrome” is a well-known linguistic phenomenon in the Arabian Gulf. In this phenomenon, the first open syllabus of a word is re-syllabified. The current study investigates the occurrence of this linguistic feature in Kuwaiti verbs within the variation of accents in the speech of two ethnic groups (Najdis and Ajamis) and three generations. The ethnicity factor was believed to play a major role in the linguistic feature under investigation due to their varying social and economic status. 48 Kuwaiti individuals represented the two investigated ethnicities and three age groups (chosen according to relevant milestones in the history of Kuwait), and with an equal number of males and females participating in data collection. Three different techniques of data collection were utilized (picture-naming, map task, interview &amp; questionnaires). The results reflected an increase in the use of the Ghawa Syndrome across generations in the Ajami group, while the Najdi dialect was rather stable. This linguistic familiarity seems to affect the two ethnicities, bringing them closer to each other.</p> Hanan A. Taqi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-28 2018-02-28 9 1298 1312 Archaeolinguistics as a Way to Overcome the Impasse in Comparative Linguistics <p>The paper exposes some essential points of our one and a half decade research results within new approach to study prehistoric stages of human language development mainly in times of ergaster-erectus domination and reflects our reaction to the protracted conceptual crisis in the comparative linguistics. As a result of fundamentally incorrectly stated goals, most of the researchers artificially limited themselves both by the defined scope of the problems to&nbsp;solve and by the methods used. Becoming tightly tied knot of up to now unsolved intrinsic contradictions, today&nbsp;comparative linguistics&nbsp;needs radical change. We have developed a synthetic approach that has proved its effectiveness. Our model is well aligned with prehistoric data of auxiliary historical disciplines and even IBM&nbsp;Genographic&nbsp;project. The results offer further opportunities for interesting studies.</p> Wolodymyr Hlib Kozyrski Alexander Victor Malovichko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-28 2018-02-28 9 1313 1322 The Grammatical Errors in Debate Arguments Made by Students of Global English Language Center <p>The thesis entitled <em>Grammatical Errors in Debate Arguments Made by the Students of</em> <em>Global English Language Center</em>. The objectives of this study were (1) to find out the kinds of errors made by the students of Global English Language Center in their debate arguments and (2) to find out the causes of errors made by the students of Global English Language Center in their debate arguments. The writer used descriptive-qualitative method of research. The population of this study was all the students of Global English Language Center. The sample was chosen by using purposive sampling. The samples were 12 students which were grouped into two debate sessions. The data were calculated and analyzed based on surface strategy taxonomy and linguistic category taxonomy to know the errors. Samples' personal reasons and personal judgement were used to know the causes of the errors. The findings showed that there were four types of errors that the students made which are omission, addition, misformation, and misordering. Misformation is the major error made by the students. Nervousness, time limit, native language interference, and the insufficient grammar learning were the causes why the students made errors.</p> Adina Nikmawati Indawan Syahri Rini Susanti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-30 2018-04-30 9 1323 1336 Translation of Film Titles Based on Intercultural Communication <p>To illustrate cultural differences between China and the western world in translating film titles. Film industry plays a vital role in cultural communications, especially in the trend of globalization, which attaches a greater importance to film title translation than ever before. &nbsp;Some of theories concerning cultural differences will be discussed, including Hall's high-context and Low-context orientations and Hofstede's value dimensions. The study finds that with the help of these theories, certain translation methods can be utilized by translators in order to do a better job when translating titles of imported films.</p> Jing Qin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-30 2018-04-30 9 1337 1343 Jale Ghaemmaghmi: An Outstanding Social- Political Poet in Contemporary Persian <p>Jale Ghaemmaghmi is the late Ghajar and first Pahlavi poet who has social-political thought and is the outstanding poet among female poets. However, she is anonymous as the consequence of her limitation in her life. By studying her poems, it is found that her social-political thought is in line with some famous thinkers such as Dehkhoda, Bahar and Kasravi. She has more social poems in comparison to Forugh Farokhzad. This paper aims at investigating her thought by categorizing her poems to introduce the hidden layers of her thought to contemporary researchers in literature and sociology.</p> Raha Zareifard Mehdi Rezaei ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-30 2018-04-30 9 1344 1357 10.24297/jal.v9i1.7203 The Semantic Comprehension of Persian Endocentric and Exocentric Compounds in non-Persian Speakers <p>Semantic comprehension of Persian compound nouns in non-Persian speakers of TPSL department was investigated using a cognitive-semantics approach. Regarding the semantic relationships between the bases of compound nouns, two were selected based on presence or lack of semantic head. Then, sufficient data were collected from different texts through a desk research method to make a frequency dictionary of endocentric and exocentric compound nouns based on the knowledge level of students. A definition-word pairing test was then selected and most frequent compound nouns (24 compound nouns) were identified and used for the test, developed and run in the form of an application for smart phones by an application developer and participants were provided with it. Overall, 888 data were collected from the test results and analyzed using standard statistical tests suggesting that due to presence of semantic head in endocentric compounds, speed and level of comprehending them was higher than exocentric compounds; moreover, a correlational relationship between comprehension of these compounds was identified. Therefore, the relationship between components of endocentric compounds was understood faster than exocentric compounds. Thus, applicability of CARIN theory was verified.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sara Montazeri Ali Afkhami Atiyeh Kamyabi Gol ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-30 2018-04-30 9 1358 1370 A Linguistic History of Iraqi Arabic (Mesopotamian Arabic) <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The objective of this work is to investigate the linguistic structure of Iraqi Arabic or what is known as Mesopotamian Arabic. The paper presents an overview of some of the fundamental analyses of Iraqi Arabic - Mesopotamian Arabic. This article is concentrated on the most important parts of the language which are the phonological, morphological, and syntactical features. The paper not only examines the linguistic feature of Iraqi Arabic but it also, discusses how Iraqi Arabic dialect is different from Modern Standard Arabic with data that are not considered before and with certain new theoretical proposals. The researcher analysis the three dialects, which are Baghdadi, Southern, and Maslawi dialect and provides an important data for each dialect. Unlike Modern Standard Arabic, Iraqi Arabic went through many changes. Phonologically, Iraqi Arabic has more consonants than Modern Standard Arabic, and a few additional long vowels. Many sounds have been replaced with different sounds. In addition, the words in Iraqi Arabic does not end with vowels. Therefore, words end with consonants rather than vowels in Iraqi Arabic. Morphologically, Iraqi Arabic is different from Modern Standard Arabic in the present progressive tense. In Iraqi Arabic, the tenses are formed by adding a prefix to the conjugated stem of the verb, which cannot be found in Modern Standard Arabic. Syntactically, Iraqi Arabic differs from Modern Standard Arabic in two ways: first, there is no case marking; Iraqi Arabic does not show overt cases as it is found in Modern Standard Arabic. Second, Iraqi Arabic lacks agreement. Iraqi Arabic does not always follow the structure of verb-subject order as found in Modern Standard Arabic. The verb usually has full agreement with the subject in both orders, subject-verb, and verb-subject. Finally, Iraqi Arabic has an interesting feature which is head movement that cannot be found in Modern Standard Arabic as Soltan argues. This is can be shown in the following example: [The student seems that ____ he read the book.] Among the other issues that the author discusses in this study is the history of Iraqi Arabic. In addition to the features of Iraqi Arabic and the effects of other languages, such as Turkish and Semitic languages on Iraqi dialects.</p> </div> </div> </div> Saja Albuarabi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-30 2018-05-30 9 1371 1380 Saudi EFL Learners' Response to Different Grammar Tasks <p>This study examines intermediate level adult EFL students in Saudi Arabia, and the effectiveness of task-based learning in relation to their understanding of English grammar. The students were given three different tasks related to negative adverbs, designed to help them learn past-tense verb forms in English. There were three groups of 20 students, all of whom were learning at the same level. The groups were:</p> <ul> <li>Selected response group (SRG, n=20)</li> <li>Constrained constructed response group (CCR, n=20)</li> <li>Storytelling group (FRG, n=20)</li> </ul> <p>Each group was given a pre-test to determine their level before the tasks, a test immediately after, and a delayed test. The selected response group (SRG) performed best on the tests, demonstrating the effectiveness of taskbased teaching in grammar acquisition. Students were chosen at random for an interview, in which their grammar knowledge was assessed. This produced results that mirrored those of the tests. It was also clear that the kinds of tasks chosen by teachers had an impact on the effectiveness of their lessons. This study provides EFL teachers with vital information they can use in learning design and lesson planning and gives EFL students information they can use to support their own learning.</p> Sami Alanazi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-30 2018-05-30 9 1381 1386 The Identification of Stereotypes in the Artistic Text <p>Stereotypes are an extremely complex object of research. Mental construction cannot be static. Old stereotypes slowly change, new ones appear and with the help of various codes (linguistic, cultural, literary) the author encrypts all of this into the artistic text. Besides the existence of linguistically expressed but not linguistically fixed stereotypes in artistic texts, stable stereotypes undergo different modifications of sense and verbalization forms. The ultimate goal of the research is to identify the factors which determine the form and the meaning of stereotypes verbalizers; to carry out a functional differentiation of linguistic signs that refer to these conventional referents in Ukrainian, Polish and British realist prose. Stabilized stereotypes are fixed by nominations of different structural and semantic complexity. Within the limits of the semantic structure of a nomination there is a hierarchy of semantic features: their typicality, frequency of functioning and, hence - stereotypicality - decreases from the center towards the periphery. In the core zone, semantics of a stereotype coincides with the semantics of a prototype. Stereotypes with different degree of conventionality and communicative relevance are explicated in artistic texts with the help of structurally different nominative and communicative units.</p> Vira Burak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 9 1387 1400 10.24297/jal.v9i1.7425 A Contrastive Study of Four English Versions of Labor Contract Law of the People's Republic of China <p>Law is a system of rules of conduct that are created by the national legislature in accordance with the legislative procedures and are enforced by the state power. Legal language, as the manifestation of law and the carrier of the legal information, must be accurate and formal. On the ground of the special function of law, words are dedicatedly selected and used within the given field in legal texts. Some unique lexical features of legal language can be found easily to ensure the accuracy and formalness of legal texts, such as the employment of archaic words, the use of loan words and the application of formal words. The contrastive study is conducted from the lexical aspect of the four English versions of Labor Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China, with an attempt to find out the differences in formalness of the law caused by different uses of words in four versions and wish legal translators pay more attention to formality and accuracy of legal words. As for the four versions, one is taken from PKU’s legal academic sector, marked as V1 in the following comparative study. One is translated by&nbsp;Backer &amp; Mckenzie(V2), one of the biggest legal agents in the world, which functions as an introduction of Chinese government’s policies concerning labor contracts to the world. One is taken from the official website the National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China (NPC), marked as V3. And the other is taken from Shuangcheng Attorneys at Law in association with China Axis Limited, marked as V4 in the following contrastive study.</p> Mao Zhang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-30 2018-07-30 9 1401 1408 10.24297/jal.v9i1.7515 The Language of Deviant Teaching in Malaysia <p>As religion covers some abstract and metaphysical concepts, its meanings are subjected to the differences, and somehow interpreted defiantly. This article discusses the language of deviant teaching by referring to the Malay language as a religious language in Malaysia, having the objectives of (1) identifying the pragmatics in the language of deviant teaching, and (2) describing the interpretation of truth in the language of deviant teaching. The discussion is based on the pragmatic concept suggested by Crystal [1]) that language users have choices when using language, and Russell’s approach [2] to meaning and interpretation in the philosophy of language. The data used in the discussion relate to the use of Malay Islamic words by two Muslim groups in Malaysia which are identified as deviant teachings, namely Tareqat Amirul Mukminin in the state of Perak and Tarikat al-Tijani in the state of Kelantan. The results show that there is a central cause of pragmatics in the language of deviant teaching which is the formulation of the identity. The results also show that the interpretation of truth in the language of deviant teaching is relatively associated with the cult of the leaders by referring them as being beyond superior and very outstanding.</p> Munif Zarirruddin Fikri Nordin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-30 2018-08-30 9 1409 1413 10.24297/jal.v9i1.7572 A Revision of the Methodology Used for Oral Expositions <p>Oral expositions in English for foreign students are probably the most difficult activity they can deliver. Lack of practice and fluency, English level and self-awareness in the task make them feel nervous and stacked in many occasions. But, on the other hand, this is a necessary skill in the development of any degree or for future situations they may face in working environments. Added to this, teachers at high schools do as much as they can taking into account the working conditions: high ratio and few hours. The oral practice is time-consuming and students still do not see the importance of the task and feel more embarrassed than at University. The aim of this paper is to do some research on the preparation and delivery of an oral exposition. The exercise finishes with a survey offered to the students of the first year in the degree of Modern Languages at the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. We can conclude that only pages on the net were checked in the preparation of the task and hardly the library of the Faculty; in the analysis of the exposition itself, they agree that they could do much better if they had practiced more often. Some proposals are offered in the conclusions.</p> Conchi Hernández-Guerra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-29 2018-09-29 9 1414 1425 10.24297/jal.v9i0.7671 Functional Heads in the Dholuo Determiner Phrase <p>This paper focuses on functional heads existing in a Dholuo DP. The notion of functional heads in the extended Projection of the CP (Complementizer Phrase) has led to a new approach in the analysis of projections in syntactic theory. The objective was to identify the functional elements in the Dholuo DP, analyze the functional elements and explain their occurrence. The study used Government and Binding theory which enables us to analyze the functional heads. The study also used descriptive research design to analyze collected data. The data was collected from 40 informants aged 35 years to 50 years; which was a sample from population of Dholuo speakers living in Homa Bay County around Lake Victoria. Data collected had sentences with Dholuo DPs. The study found eleven elements commonly occurring in Dholuo DP. These elements form the structure of Dholuo DP and can be categorized as lexical and functional heads. The lexical elements identified in the Dholuo DPs are: Nouns, Adjectives, prepositional phrases and genitive phrases. The functional elements identified included: Pronouns, article affixes, demonstratives, possessives, quantifiers, numerals, and relative clauses. In Dholuo, genitive phrases have prepositions acting as possessives. Relative clauses on the other hand, contain relative word, verb, pronoun, preposition and demonstratives.</p> Jerry Agalo Jackton Otieno Midigo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-29 2018-09-29 9 1426 1442 10.24297/jal.v9i0.7672 How Can L2 Lexicon Be Proceduralized While Interacting with Proceduralized L2 Grammar: A Cognitively Linguistic Model of the Declarative/Procedural Interface <p>This article sheds light on how L2 lexicon should be considered cognitive and thus recalled for L2 grammar and how the latter embraces L2 lexicon due to its meaningfulness derived from L1. In so doing, this review article shows a possible interaction of the proceduralized knowledge of L2 grammar with the declarative knowledge of L2 lexicon from a cognitively linguistic perspective. This results in getting L2 lexicon proceduralized so as to support the weak interface position, i.e. partial conversion of declarative knowledge into proceduralized one. However, this article does not support the strong interface position, i.e. total conversion of declarative knowledge into proceduralized one as declarative language irregularities are not cognizable as declarative meaningful lexicon. Although there has been a debate whether learnt/declarative knowledge can be converted into acquired/proceduralized knowledge, cognitively linguistic consideration has been taken so far to support this transfer of knowledge. That is why; this article views how cognizable L2 vocabularies are to be recruited by L2 proceduralized grammar.</p> Asim Mohammad Khresheh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-24 2018-10-24 9 1443 1451 Losing A Language: A Qualitative Study of Code-Switching Among Taiwanese-Chinese Bilingual Aphasic Speakers with Selective Recovery Pattern <p>This study aimed to investigate whether Taiwanese-Mandarin bilingual aphasia with selective recovery patterns lose knowledge of the inaccessible language or the control of the language they speak. Four patients were requested to narrate pictures in two separated language settings. The speech data collected in the clinical setting were compared with ten healthy bilingual adults’ speech data. The healthy bilingual adults did not code-switch in L2 but L1, which may be due to the language shift phenomenon in their lives. There were quantitative and qualitative differences of code-switching between the two groups. For the quantitative differences, the greater amount of code-switching observed in patients indicated that they did not lose knowledge of the inaccessible language, but rather the control of the language they spoke, and this may result from the impairment of the control mechanisms. Also, for the qualitative differences, the healthy adults code-switched more on nouns than verbs because those were frequently-used nouns in L2, and there were no equivalent translations in L1 ; on the contrary, the patients code-switched more on verbs than nouns and this may be due to the mapping word and referent is less transparent for verbs than it is for concrete nouns</p> Jui Hua Chen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-01 2018-12-01 9 1452 1470 10.24297/jal.v9i0.7917 Revisiting the Perception of Silence in Linguistics <p>Silence in human communication has not only been marginalized as a means of communication, but has often been considered as void of serving any communicative role. It is presumptuously viewed as the mere opposite of communication occurring at the far end of the communicative continuum. &nbsp;Investigating the role of silence in human communication from a linguistic point of view, this paper, hence, attempts to show that such conventional view of silence as a non-communicative tool should be reconsidered. It argues that both silence and speech make an integral part of human communication as they coincide in any delivered message. The context in which they serve a communicative function plays a major role in their use, the choice of one over the other, as well as the interpretation of any delivered message. The study also argues that speech and silence do not always fall into the traditional schematic classification of vocal versus non-vocal. While silence can be vocal in some occasions in human communication, speech can be expressed non-vocally too. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Said AL-Jahdhami ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-01 2018-12-01 9 1471 1477 10.24297/jal.v9i0.7899