Optimization of 6-Gingerol Extraction Assisted by Microwave From Fresh Ginger Using Response Surface Methodology

  • Vedashree M Department of Spice and Flavour Science, CSIR- Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI), Mysore, India-570020
  • Madeneni Madhava Naidu CSIR-CFTRI
Keywords: 6-gingerol, Response Surface Methodology, MAE, Antioxidant Activity, Polyphenols


The present study investigates optimum conditions for Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) of 6-gingerol. Ginger was dried using a cross flow dryer at 55 ± 2 0C for eight hours. Ginger powder was extracted at three different watts (400 W, 500 W, and 600 W), temperatures (50 0C, 60 0C, 70 0C) and time (10, 20, 30 min) for optimum yield.  6-gingerol content was found to be 21.15 ± 0.13 and 18.81 ± 0.15 mg/g in fresh ginger and dried ginger, respectively.  Optimized condition obtained by RSM for 6-gingerol was 400 W, 70 0C at 10 min extraction time.  The results of MAE are expressed by 2-D contour plot and response surface curve by keeping one variable constant which showed highest yield at 600 W, 70 0C for 30 min extraction time.  Microwave assisted extracts exhibited higher antioxidant activity in comparison with conventional extracts.


Download data is not yet available.


Abhay PM, Sarla S, Subhash C. Estimation of gingerol content in different brand samples of ginger powder and their anti-oxidant activity: A comparative study. Recent Research in Science and Technology, 5: 54-59 (2013)

Rao Mukkavilli, Chunhua Yang, Reenu, Singh, Tanwar, Ahmed Ghareeb, Latika, Luthra, & Ritu, Aneja. Absorption, Metabolic Stability, and Pharmacokinetics of Ginger Phytochemicals, Molecules 22: 553; doi:10.3390/molecules22040553(2017)

Denniff P, Macleod I, Whiting DA. Synthesis of the (±)-[n]-gingerols (pungent principles of ginger) and related compounds through regioselective aldol condensations: relative pungency assays. Journal of the Chemical Society Perkin Transactions 82-87 (1981).

Chen Q, Shi H, Ho C. Effects of Rosemary Extracts and Major Constituents on Lipid Oxidation and Soybean Lipoxygenase Activity. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc 69: 999-1002 (1992).

Bicchi C, Binello A, Rubiolo P. Determination of Phenolic Diterpene Antioxidants in Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) with Different Methods of Extraction and Analysis. Phytochem. Anal 11: 236-242 (2000).

Kaufmann B, Christen P. Recent Extraction Techniques for Natural Products: Microwave-assisted Extraction and Pressurized Solvent Extraction. Phytochem. Anal 13: 105–113 (2002).

Ganzler K, Salgo A, Valko K. Microwave extraction-a novel sample preparation method for chromatography. J. Chromatogr 371: 299-306 (1986).

Martino E, Ramaiola I, Urbano M, Bracco F, Collina S. Microwave-assisted extraction of coumarin and related compounds from Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas as an alternative to Soxhlet and ultrasound-assisted extraction. Journal of Chromatography A Sep 1;1125(2):147-51 (2006)

Aeschbach R, Loliger J, Scott BC, Murcja A, Butler J, Halliweii B, & Aruoma OI. Antioxidant actions of thymol carbacrol, 6-gingerol, zingerone, and hydroxytyrosol. Food Chem. Toxicol 32: 31-36 (1994)

Lantz RC, Chen GJ, Sarihan M, Solyom AM, Jolad SD, Timmermann BN. The effect of extracts from ginger rhizome on inflammatory mediator production. Phytomedicine 14(2): 123-128 (2007).

Lee TY, Lee KC, Chen SY, Chang HH. 6-Gingerol inhibits ROS and iNOS through the suppression of PKC-α and NF-κB pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages. Biochem Bioph Res Co 382: 134–139 (2009).

Park YJ, Wen J, Bang S, Park SW, Song SY. 6-Gingerol induces cell cycle arrest and cell death of mutant p53-expressing pancreatic cancer cells. Yonsei Med J 47: 688–697 (2006)

Ishiguro K, Ando T, Maeda O, Ohmiya N, Niwa Y, Kadomatsu, K, Goto H. Ginger ingredients reduce the viability of gastric cancer cells via distinct mechanisms. Biochem Bioph Res 362: 218–223 (2007).

Lee HS, Seo EY, Kang NE, Kim WK. [6]-Gingerol inhibits metastasis of MDA- The effect of extracts from ginger rhizome on inflammatory mediator production. Phytomed. 14, 123–128MB-231 human breast cancer cells. J Nutr Biochem 19: 313–31 (2008)

Nidhi N, Kulpreet B, Sahdeo P, George J, Shukla Y. [6]- Gingerol induces reactive oxygen species regulated mitochondrial cell death pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Chemical-Biological Interact 181: 77–84 (2009)

Singh G, Kapoor IPS, Singh P, de Heluani CS, de Lampasona, MP, Cesar AN, Catalan. Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations on essential oil and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale. Food Chem Toxicol 46: 3295–3302 (2008).

Yu Na Jung, Smee Kang, Hyun Lee, Joo Hyoun Kim, Jungil Hong. Changes in the chemical properties and anti-oxidant activities of curcumin by microwave radiation Food Science and Biotechnology 25(5): 1449–1455 (2016).

Chen BH, Wu PY, Chen KM, Fu TF, Wang HM, Chen CY. Antiallergic potential on RBL-2H3 cells of some phenolic constituents of Zingiber officinale (Ginger). J Nat Prod 72: 950–953 (2009).

Liu W, Chun-Li, Zhou, Jing, Zhao, Dong, Chen, Quan-Hong, Li. Optimised microwave-assisted extraction of 6-gingerol from Zingiber officinale Roscoe and evaluation of antioxidant activity in vitro." Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria 13: 155-168 (2014).

BIS: 1797-1985, Methods of test for spices and condiments, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi,) (1988).

Balasubramanian S, Paridhi G, Bosco JD, Kadam DM. Optimization of Process Conditions for the Development of Tomato Foam by Box-Behnken Design. Food and Nutrition Sciences 3: 925-930 (2012).

Atkinson AC, Donev AN, Optimum experimental designs. Oxford: Oxford University Press 132–189 (1992).

Boyacy BH. A new approach for determination of enzyme kinetic constants using response surface methodology. Biochemical Engineering Journal 25: 55–62 (2005)

Marcos Almeida Bezerraa, Ricardo Erthal Santelli, Eliane Padua Oliveiraa, Leonardo Silveira Villar., & Luciane Ame´ lia Escaleiraa. Response surface methodology (RSM) as a tool for optimization in analytical chemistry. Talanta. 76: 965–977 (2008).

Hui Teng, Won YL, Yong H. Choi. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Polyphenols, Anthocyanins, and Antioxidants from Raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miq.) Using Response Surface Methodology. Food Anal. Methods 7: 1536–1545 (2014)

Wakte PS, Sachin BS, Patil AA, Mohato DM, Band TH, Shinde DB. Optimization of microwave, ultra-sonic and supercritical carbon dioxide assisted extraction techniques for curcumin from Curcuma longa Separation and Purification Technology 79: 50–55 (2011).

Ramírez GJ, Jaimez OJ, Castañeda OA, Añorve MJ., Salazar PV., González OLG, Contreras LE. Optimization of physical conditions for the aqueous extraction of antioxidant compounds from ginger (Zingiber officinale) applying a box-Behnken design. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 72(1): 34-40. (2017).

Priya NT, Vinothini, Shilpa H, Jayaprakash, Vishalakshi V, Sathish HS, Pushpa MS and Madeneni Madhava Naidu Ginger–Garlic Paste in Retort Pouches and Its Quality. Journal of Food Engineering 36: (2011)

AOAC International. 1995. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. 2 vols. 16th edition. Arlington, VA, USA, Association of Analytical Communities.

Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A. Optimisation protocol for the extraction of 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol from Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade and improving antioxidant and anticancer activity using response surface methodology. BMC complementary and alternative medicine 15: 258 (2015).

Mahasukhonthachat K, Sopade PA. Gidley M.J. Kinetics of starch digestion in sorghum as affected by particle size. Journal of Food Engineering 96: 18–28 (2010)

Schwertner HA, Rios DC. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol in ginger-containing dietary supplements, spices, teas, and beverages. Journal of Chromatography B 856: 41-47(2007).

Kubra Rahat I, Jagan Mohan Rao L. An impression on current developments in the technology, chemistry, and biological activities of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 52: 651-688 (2012).

Gallo M, Ferracane R, Graziani G, Ritieni A, Fogliano V. Microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from four different spices. Molecules 15: 6365-6374 (2010).

Cook NC, Samman S. Flavonoids—chemistry, metabolism, cardio protective effects, and dietary sources. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 7: 66-76 (1996).

Tung YT, Wu JH, Kuo YH, Chang ST. Antioxidant activities of natural phenolic compounds from Acacia confusa bark. Bioresource Technology 98:1120-1123 (2007).

Chen IN, Chang CC, Ng CC, Wang CY, Shyu YT, Chang TL. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Zingiberaceae plants in Taiwan. Plant foods for hum Nutri 63(1): 15-20 (2008).