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CIRWORLD en-US JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN BIOLOGY 2347-6893 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Annual Reviewer Acknowledgement https://cirworld.com/index.php/jab/article/view/7651 <p>The editorial team of the journal would like to thank the reviewers for their work in referring manuscripts during 2018.</p> Kewen Zhao ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-08-31 2018-08-31 11 Exploratory Study of Xanthine Dehydrogenase (XD) Accumulation in Chicks’ Organs: XD Natures and its Inhibitory Activities https://cirworld.com/index.php/jab/article/view/7825 <p>Few researches have indicated the availability of xanthine dehydrogenase in some parts of chicks, the enzymatic activity, and the rate of enzyme synthesis during the first few days after hatching. In addition, studies were conducted to examine the relationship between changes in xanthine dehydrogenase in some of these parts and some biomarkers as the excretion of uric acid in chicks fed diets. The developmental changes between xanthine oxidase in these parts and adenosine have also been observed before. However, in the current project, the developmental changes (including organ activity) in xanthine dehydrogenase activity of kidney, liver, pancreas and duodenum are investigated. Unincubated White Leghorn eggs and day-old male chicks were brought. Chicks were fed (Startena) ad libitum and eggs were injected in three sequential days and embryos were gotten on day 19<sup>th</sup>. Some organs (as liver, kidney, duodenum, and pancreas) tissues of the embryos were isolated and treated with potassium phosphate solution and treated with charcoal and centrifuged. The extracts were let to react with 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine and NAD in phosphate buffer in order to check the activity using a fluorometer. Specific activities of the xanthine dehydrogenase in organ tissues are listed as micromicromoles of substrate oxidized per minute per milligram protein. Besides, the xanthine dehydrogenase activities in these active tissues were measured from day 17 of incubation to a week after hatching. We reached to a conclusion that the enzyme was formed in the kidney several days prior to hatching and this had stimulated the liver, duodenum, and kidney at hatching in addition, to the central nervous system which resulted in a sensible modification of the pituitary function. Tracking the xanthine dehydrogenase activities in these organs showed no influence on the enzymatic activities except for pancreas which related to dietary situation that clearly refers to a possible interfering agent in the food which opens new arguments. As a result, our study has lucratively discovered 3-types of xanthine dehydrogenases in fledglings.</p> Loai Aljerf Bayan Al Hamwi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-07 2018-10-07 11 2269 2276 10.24297/jab.v11i0.7825 The Antihyperlipidaemic Property of Methanol Leaf Extract of Chrysophyllum albidum in Albino Rats (Wistar Strain) Fed on High Fat Diet. https://cirworld.com/index.php/jab/article/view/6793 <p>Hyperlipidaemia is a well documented risk factor for cardiovascular disease, a major cause of mortality world-wide. <em>Chrysophyllum albidum </em>(white star apple) has several medicinal properties.&nbsp; Ingestion of the fruits has been found to lower lipid levels in the body, due to its high fibre content. Research works have shown that several parts of the plant are highly medicinal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihyperlipidaemic property of methanol leaf extract of <em>Chrysophyllum albidum</em> in Wistar rats fed with a high fat diet. Thirty male Wistar rats weighing between 130g-150g were distributed into five groups of six animals each. Group 1 received normal fat diet (NFD). Group 2 received high fat diet (HFD; Grower mash supplemented with 20% beef tallow). Group 3 received HFD and a standard lipid lowering drug, orlistat (20mg/kg body weight, p.o).&nbsp; Animals in group 4 and 5 were fed on HFD and received methanol leaf extract of <em>Chrysophyllum albidum, </em>250mg/kg and 500mg/kg, p.o respectively. The administration was carried out for 56 days. On the 57th day, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Organs were harvested and blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses. Results showed that the administration of HFD increased the total cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides levels and decreased the HDL- cholesterol levels significantly (p &lt;0.05). Simultaneous administration of <em>Chrysophyllum albidum</em> extract significantly (p&lt;0.05) reduced the total cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides levels and increased HDL- Cholesterol. Final body weights of animals that received <em>Chrysophyllum albidum</em> extract were significantly (p&lt;0.05) lower than final body weights of animals in groups 2 (negative control). Results from Histopathology revealed inflammation of the liver and kidney of rats in group 2 (negative control). On the other hand, rats that received orlistat and <em>Chrysophyllum albidum</em> extract had normal liver and kidney architecture. It was concluded that <em>Chrysophyllum albidum</em> extract showed antihyperlipidemic effect in rats fed with beef tallow supplemented diet.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Osebhahiemen Happiness Ojemekele Ehimwenma Sheena Omoregie ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-28 2018-02-28 11 2146 2154 10.24297/jab.v11i1.6793 Testosterone Level, Testicular Histology and Reproductive Events of Caucasian Pit Viper, Gloydius Halys Caucasicus (Serpentes: Viperidae) https://cirworld.com/index.php/jab/article/view/6755 <p>The steroid hormones regulate the reproductive physiology of animals and may influence by habitat and seasonal conditions. In this study, body weight and length, testosterone concentration and testicular histology were measured in Caucasian pit viper from Lar region, Tehran province, during summer and autumn seasons in year 2014. Serum samples were collected from 24 anesthetized snakes and testicles were removed and fixed for histological study. Enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) was conducted on serum samples to determine concentrations of testosterone (T) and standard histological procedure was performed on gonads. Results indicated that body weights and lengths in summer and fall seasons were respectively 49.88±9.6 gr, 50.25±7.4 cm and 42.75±4.5gr, 43.25±2.3 cm, serum testosterone level in summer, 29.3± 5.12 ng/ml was more than fall, 13.75±2.80 ng/ml at P is less than equals to 0.05. The numbers of spermatogonias, spermatocytes and spermatids in summer were more than fall and statistically different at P is less than equals to 0.05. The leydig cells number and diameter in fall were more than summer but differences were not significant. There were significant differences between seminiferous tubules diameter, germinal epithelial height and tunica albuginea thickness in summer as compared to fall at P is less than equals to 0.05. The data suggest male Caucasian pit-viper of Lar region of Tehran displaying estival spermatogenesis and some relationship was revealed between T level and snake's body weight, and high level of T coincide with the mating period.</p> Fatemeh Todehdehghan Arefeh Salehi Delaram Eslimi Esfahani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-28 2018-02-28 11 2155 2162 10.24297/jab.v11i1.6755 Characterization of Phospholipase A2 Enzyme Activity in Serum of the Komodo Dragon (Varanus Komodoensis) https://cirworld.com/index.php/jab/article/view/7133 <p>Soluble phospholipase A<sub>2 </sub>(sPLA<sub>2</sub>) is an enzyme found in the peripheral circulation of vertebrates which has significant immunological activity.&nbsp; This enzyme exerts immune activity by the hydrolysis of fatty acids from the sn-2 position of membrane glycerophospholipids of microbes, thus compromising membrane integrity and casing eventual lysis.&nbsp; We utilized membrane fatty acids labeled with a fluorescent probe (BODIPY) at the sn-2 position fatty acid to label the membranes.&nbsp; Incubation of different volumes of serum from Komodo dragons with BODIPY-labeled bacteria resulted in liberation of labeled fatty acid in a serum volume-dependent manner. This cleavage of fatty acid occurred rapidly, with a biphasic production of fluorescent product.&nbsp; An immediate accumulation of product was noted, which increased steadily for a 30-minute period, followed by a slower hydrolysis between 30 and 180 min.&nbsp; The activity was temperature-dependent, with low activities observed at 5<sup>o</sup>C and a linear increase up to 40<sup>o</sup>C.&nbsp; The liberation for fatty acid was inhibited by <em>p</em>-bromophenacyl bromide, a specific phospholipase A<sub>2 </sub>(PLA<sub>2</sub>) inhibitor, in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that the activity was due to the presence of sPLA<sub>2</sub>.</p> Mark Merchant Bekky Muscher Judith Bryja Danyell Henry Rodolfo Falconi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-21 2018-03-21 11 2163 2169 10.24297/jab.v11i1.7133 Nutritional Assessment and Molecular Identification of Microorganisms from Akhuni/Axone: A Soybean Based Fermented Food of Nagaland, India https://cirworld.com/index.php/jab/article/view/7118 <p>Soybean based fermented foods are known to be highly nutritive, not just because it contains high protein content but also due to presence of polyphenols. Various microorganisms involved during the fermentation process have proven to play active role in the enhancement of the nutritional value as well as increase in phytochemicals in the product. <em>Akhuni/Axone</em> is a popular soybean product of Nagaland, India. It forms an integral part of the diet and is used as a condiment during preparation of various dishes in the Naga kitchen.&nbsp; This study describes the nutritional value, the antioxidant activity and the presence of polyphenols of <em>Akhuni/Axone, </em>which increase significantly in composition between the soybean seeds and the fermented product. The molecular identification of the microorganisms present in <em>Akhuni/Axone</em> product is also reported in this paper.</p> Chitta Ranjan Deb Bendangnaro Jamir ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-03-24 2018-03-24 11 2170 2179 10.24297/jab.v11i1.7118 The Curative Effect of Berberine Nanoparticles and Cisplatin Combination Therapies Against Hepatocarcinogenesis-Induced By N-Nitroso-Diethylamine In Male Rat https://cirworld.com/index.php/jab/article/view/7207 <p>This study aimed to investigate whether berberine nanoparticles (BBR-NPs) and/or cisplatin supplementation could prevent hepatocarcinogenesis-induced by N-nitroso-diethylamine (DENA) in male rats. Male <em>Wistar</em> albino rats were divided into five groups; Group 1: Control; Group 2: DENA-CCl<sub>4</sub>; Group 3: DENA-CCl<sub>4</sub>+Cisplatin; Group 4: DENA-CCl<sub>4</sub>+BBR-NPs; Group 5: DENA-CCl<sub>4</sub>+Cisplatin+BBR-NPs. DENA-CCl<sub>4</sub> significantly increase AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, GGT, AFP activities and total bilirubin, while, 5<sup>, </sup>NT,&nbsp; total protein and albumin decreased. DENA-CCl<sub>4</sub> treatment caused increment in MDA levels and reduction in SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH in liver tissues. Moreover, DENA-CCl<sub>4</sub> increase the gene expression of ADAM17 and TNF-a however, &nbsp;P53 was declined. In addition, DENA-CCl<sub>4</sub> caused severe histopathological lesions in the liver tissue. Interestingly, administration of berberine nanoparticles alone or in combination with cisplatin improves the hepatocarcinogenesis induced by DENA-CCl<sub>4</sub> on the physiological, biochemical, molecular and histological levels by decreasing oxidative stress and preserving gene expression of ADAM17, TNF-I and P53. The present findings suggest that BBR-NPs with cisplatin might offer a promising strategy for the prevention of liver cancer.</p> Nema Abdelhameed Mohamed Awatef Mohamed Ali Doaa Ahmed Ghareeb Adham Rashed Mohamed Yasmin Mohamed Elmokhtar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-05-03 2018-05-03 11 2180 2200 10.24297/jab.v11i1.7207 From the Efficiency of Berlese Tullgren Funnel to the Spatiotemporal Variation of Two Uropodina Genera, Afrotrachytes Kontschán, 2006 and Trachyuropoda Berlese, 1888 (Acari, Mesostigmata) in Côte d’Ivoire https://cirworld.com/index.php/jab/article/view/7470 <p>Due to their interaction with many other small Arthropods, Uropodina mites can be considered as good indicators of soil fauna of forest litter. In order, to better understand their distribution and phenology according to forest type four sites from primary forest to plantations were sampled in 2008 in Côte d’Ivoire: 1- the Lamto savannah (6°13' N, 5°02' W), 2- Oumé primary forest (6°31’ N, 5°30’ W), 3- Oumé teak plantation (6°31’ N, 5°30’ W) all situated in the Sudanese domain and finally, 4- the Taï primary forest (5°45’ N, 7°07 W) located in the Guinean domain. After a preliminary study devoted to the efficiency of Berlese Tullgren funnel, the spatiotemporal variation of two Uropodina genera - <em>Afrotrachytes</em> Kontschán, 2006 and <em>Trachyuropoda</em> Berlese, 1888 - was assessed. We hypothesized that the abundance of Uropodina would be higher in primary forest and lower in savannah and monospecific plantation. Whatever the season, we expected that the abundance of Uropodina would decrease with soil depth and would vary along transect. On each site, 15 sampling points were allocated over a 14-m transect with 1m intervals between two consecutive points. For each sampling point, 9 cores (litter, 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-25, 25-30, 30-35 and 35-40 cm) were taken with a steel corer (Ø 3.5 cm). Thus, a total of 1,080 soil cores were collected over two sampling periods from January to March 2008 (dry season) and August to October 2008 (rainy season). Soil physico-chemical parameters were also characterized. Mites were extracted using the Berlese-Tullgren funnels for one week after testing the extraction duration in a preliminary study. The bulbs lighting as soon as the soil cores were placed in Berlese Tullgren gave better results regarding the abundance of extracted mites. The results showed that the abundance of <em>Afrotrachytes</em> sp and <em>Trachyuropoda</em> sp was higher in rainy season, and varied significantly through the sites, whatever the season. The highest abundances of <em>Afrotrachytes</em> sp were observed in Oumé primary forest whereas those of <em>Trachyuropoda</em> sp were recorded in Oumé primary forest, and in Lamto savannah, whatever the season. Apart from the distribution of <em>Trachyuropoda</em> sp in dry season, the abundance of <em>Afrotrachytes</em> sp and<em> Trachyuropoda</em> sp was greater in the topsoil (litter and 0-5 cm) and decreased with soil depth. The abundances of<em> Afrotrachytes</em> sp and <em>Trachyuropoda</em> sp did not follow a normal distribution along the transects. The season-soil depth interaction affected significantly the abundance of <em>Trachyuropoda</em> sp whereas the bulk density (dry season and rainy season), soil depth (dry season), carbon / nitrogen ratio (dry season) impacted significantly the abundance of<em> Afrotrachytes</em> sp. This first study highlighted the spatiotemporal variation of Uropodina in Côte d’Ivoire. However, taking into account of the different dispersal agents in future studies would help us to better understand their abundance and distribution along different habitats, as well as their role as biological control agents.</p> Julien Kouadio N’Dri Arnauth M. Guéi Thierry Hance Joseph G. Yaco Jean-Luc D.S. Ahui Henri M. Andrac ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-07-11 2018-07-11 11 2201 2217 10.24297/jab.v11i1.7470 Myelosuppression and Nephrotoxicity Induced by Cisplatin in Female Rats: The Role of Berberine Nanoparticles https://cirworld.com/index.php/jab/article/view/7556 <p>Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the most effective antineoplastic drugs used in chemotherapy, strategies to protect tissues against cisplatin nephrotoxicity is a clinical interest. This study aimed to evaluate the possible protective effect of berberine nanoparticles (BBR-NPs) against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in female rats. Intraperitoneal (IP) injection of cisplatin (8 mg/kg) caused significant decrease in RBC, Hb, Hct, WBC and platelets. Also, cisplatin caused disturbances in kidney function as documented by a significant increase in urea, uric acid, creatinine and MDA, with significant decreases in the total protein, albumin, GSH and total thiol.TNF-&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/editor/7556_a.png" width="7" height="11">, caspase-3, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-1<img src="/public/site/images/editor/7556.png">were increased in cisplatin treated group. The histopathological changes in cisplatin group include degeneration and desquamation of tubular epithelial cells, hyaline cast formation, inflammatory cell infiltration and tubular dilation. Oral administration of BBR-NPs at a dose 1mg/kg/day for 30 days after cisplatin produced significant decrease in the levels of urea, uric acid, creatinine, TNF-&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/editor/7556_a.png" width="7" height="12">and caspase-3 as well as kidney MDA with a marked increase in total protein, albumin, GSH, total thiol and repairing the histopathological changes. Scanning microscope of RBC showed the protective effect of BBR-NPs against the different changes induced by CDDP. The present study suggested that the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of BBR-NPs may prevent CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity via decreasing the oxidative stress, inhibiting the inflammation and apoptosis.</p> Nema Abdelhameed Mohamed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-08-30 2018-08-30 11 2218 2235 10.24297/jab.v11i1.7556 Effect of Bio-Fertilizers Azotobacter Chroococcum and Pseudomonas Fluorescens on Growth of Broccoli (Brassica Oleracea L. Var. Italica) https://cirworld.com/index.php/jab/article/view/7590 <p>A field experiment was carried out at the experimental farm of soil laboratory belong to Directorate of Diyala Agriculture, Iraq during 2017. The experiment comprises of different doses of biofertilizers (Azotobacter chroococcum and Pseudomonas fluorescens) 0.08, 0.14 and 0.28 g/plant to assess their performance on growth characteristics of broccoli. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design having four treatments with three replications. The data analysis revealed that the maximum of leaves numbers in the treatment of Biofertilizer, 0.28 (23.4) whereas the maximum area of bigger leaf and head diameter was recorded in all treatments of Biofertilizer 0.08, 0.14 and 0.28 (415.9, 340.3 and 373.9 cm) and (15.5,15.4 and 15.1cm) as compared with control (108.8 cm) and (3.0 cm) respectively.</p> Hussein Ali Salim ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-08-30 2018-08-30 11 2236 2240 10.24297/jab.v11i1.7590 The Role of the Diameter of the Titanium, Fiber and Zirconium Posts https://cirworld.com/index.php/jab/article/view/7603 <p>The goal is to compare the strength of a fracture among titanium, fiber and zirconium posts. We have formed three group: titanium, fiber and zirconium,, and each group has 20 samples with 3 different diameters.</p> <p>The posts were tested using "Shimadzu Univerzal Testing Mashine" at the same distance, and the force was applied to all at the same place. The fracture strength was registered on a special software system.</p> <p>Between posts with the same diameter (1.2 mm) the greatest average fracture force has titanium posts 161.69 N (± 0.07), followed by fiber posts 45.38N (± 0, 01) and zirconium posts 34.81N (± 0.01). between the subgroups of the same&nbsp; diameter (1.35mm), the greatest average fracture strength has the titanium posts 165.26N (± 0.01), followed by the fiber posts 71.57N (± 0.01) and zirconium posts 46.53N (± 0.004). between the subgroups of the same diameter (1.5 mm) the largest average fracture force has titanium posts 202.42N (± 0.01), followed by fiber posts 73.67N (± 0.004) and zirconium posts 67.15N (± 0.004).</p> <p>The diameter of the different types of posts gives different mechanical properties that affect differently the resistance of the fracture strength.</p> Vesna Jurukovska Shotarovska Biljana Kapusevska Nikola Dereban ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-09-07 2018-09-07 11 2241 2249 10.24297/jab.v11i0.7603 Antidiabetic and Immunomodulatory Effects of Oleuropein and Vitamin C in Diabetic Male Rats https://cirworld.com/index.php/jab/article/view/7689 <p>The present work was designed to study the antidiabetic and immunomodulatory effects of olive leaf polyphenol (Oleuropein) and vitamin C in diabetic male rats. Diabetes was induced by a single i.p. dose of STZ (40 mg/kg b.w.). Pure oleuropein compound (5 mg/kg b.w.) and vit. C (150 mg/kg b.w.) were orally administered once per a day for 15 days after diabetes induction. Oleuropein and vitamin C showed a significant role in attenuating the blood glucose, insulin, pancreatic amylase, and hexokinase alterations and caused an elevation of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats. Oleuropein and vitamin C showed a hematopoetic action as documented by the increase in RBC, Hb, Hct, PLt, decrease in WBC and improved RBC structure. Oleuropein and vitamin C significantly attenuated the oxidative status of diabetic rats. Oleuropein and vitamin C improved the different changes in some cytokines and interlukines and decreases the gene expression of TNF-<img src="/public/site/images/editor/ALFA1.png">, COX<sub>2,</sub> and caspase3 involved in apoptosis and inflammation. The immunohistochemical sections of pancreas in the diabetic rats treated with oleuropein and vitamin C showed a high intensity of insulin in <img src="/public/site/images/editor/BETA1.png">-cells. Oleuropein as a natural active compound has antioxidant activity more or less like vitamin C to attenuate the effect of STZ-induced diabetes.</p> Nema Abdelhameed Mohamed Heba Mohamed Abdou Marium Mohamed Marzouk ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-04 2018-10-04 11 2250 2268 10.24297/jab.v11i0.7689