Exposure Dose of Bacteria and Fungi in a Public Primary School in Beni Suef, Upper Egypt

  • Dr. Mona Mostafa Minia University
Keywords: Indoor Exposure Dose, Respirable Fraction, Bacteria, Fungi, Size Distribution, Indoor Environment

Abstract

Potential health risk due to the exposure of bacteria and fungi is mainly related to the concentration of respirable airborne bacteria and fungi in indoor environments. Schools buildings represent an important category of indoor environments. This study aimed to evaluate the concentration and size distribution of bacteria and fungi in classrooms of a public primary school in Beni Suef, Egypt. In addition, the indoor exposure dose (IED) of bacteria and fungi were estimated for children and teachers. A six-stage Andersen impactor was used for collecting the bacterial and fungal particles.  Indoor average concentration of bacteria was  1120±458 CFU/m3 while the corresponding fungal concentration was 291±89 CFU/m3. Bacterial level is almost twice the World Health Organization guideline value of 500 CFU/m3 while the fungal level is underestimated. Respirable fraction (<5 µm), that can reach to the lower airways of the lung, of bacteria was 79% while the corresponding respirable fraction of fungi was 90% of the total concentration. The size distribution of bacteria was bimodal in nature and the fungal size distribution was unimodal with lower dispersion than bacteria. IED of bacteria was 211 CFU/kg and 70 CFU/kg for children and teachers, respectively. While the fungal IED was 55 CFU/kg and 18.2 CFU/kg for children and teachers, respectively.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Dr. Mona Mostafa, Minia University

Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Minia University, Minia, Egypt

References

Pegas, P.N., Evtyugina, M.G., Alves, C.A., Nunes, T., Cerqueira, M., Franchi, M., Pio, C., Almeida, S.M., Freitas, M.C. Outdoor/indoor air quality in primary schools in Lisbon: A preliminary study, Quim Nova. 2010; (33): 1145– 49.

Aydogdu, H., Asan, A ., Tatman, O.M. Indoor and outdoor airborne bacteria in child day – care centers in Edirn city (Turky), seasonal distribution and influence of meteorological factors, Environ Monit Assess. 2010; (164): 53- 6.

Armadans-Gil L, Rodríguez-Garrido V, Campins-Martí M, Gil-Cuestaa J., Vaqué-Rafart J. Particle counting and microbiological air sampling: results of the simultaneous use of both procedures in different types of hospital rooms, Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2013; (31): 217- 21.

Grisoli, P., Albertoni, M., Rodolfi, M. Application of airborne microorganisms indexes in offices, gyms and

libraries, Appl Sci. 2019; (9), 1101. http:// doi:10.3390/app9061101.

Andualem, Z., Gizaw, Z., Bogale, L., Dange, H. Indoor bacterial load and its correlation to physical indoor

air quality parameters in public primary schools, Multidisci Resp Med. 2019;(14), 2. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40248-018-0167

Samson, E., Ihongbe, J.C., Okeleke,O., Hi , E., Phillips Adeyemi, O. Microbiological assessment of indoor air

quality of some selected private primary schools in Ilishan-Remo, Ogun state, Nigeria, 2017; (3), 2454–9142.

Fekadu, H.S., Amanuel, E., Aklilu, D.F. Quantitative assessment of bio-aerosols contamination in indoor air of university dormitory rooms, Int J Health Sci. 2015; (3), 249-56.

Zemichael, G., Mulat, G., Chalachew, Y. High bacterial load of indoor air in hospital wards: the case of University of Gondar teaching hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, Multidiscip Respir Med. 2016; (11), 24. doi: 10.1186/s40248-016-0061-4.

Seyed, M.H., Mahnaz, N., Kazuo, S., Koichi, M. Assessment of airborne particles in indoor environments:

Applicability of particle counting for prediction of bioaerosol concentrations, Aerosol and air qual Res.

; (16), 1910-2016.

Kotzias, D. Indoor air and human exposure assessment-Needs and approaches, Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2005;

(57), 5-7.

Yassin, M.F. Almouqatea S. Assessment of airborne bacteria and fungi in an indoor and outdoor

environment, Int J Environ Sci Technol. 2010; (7), 535- 44.

Jozef, S.P., Kyaw Tha Paw, U., Danuta, O.L., Agnieszka, W. and Krzysztof, U. Bacterial and fungal aerosols

in indoor environment in upper Silesia, Poland, Atmos Environ. 2000; (34), 3833-42.

Bipasha, G., Himanshu, .L, Rajesh, K., Naba, H., Arun, S., Vinod, K.J. Estimation of bioaerosol in indoor environment in the university library of Delhi, Sustain, Environ Res. 2013; (23), 199-207.

Fekadu, H.S., Melaku, M.A. Microbiological quality of indoor air in university libraries, Asian Pac J of trop

biomed. 2014; (4), S312–7.

Moustafa, M. Size-resolved concentration of bacteria and fungi in indoor and outdoor environments, Int J

Biophys. 2017; (4), 53-9.

Mohan, K., Madhan, N., Ramprasad, S., Maruthi, Y.A. Microbiological air quality ofindoors in primary and

secondary schools of Visakhapatnam, India. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2014; (8), 880–7.

Daisey, J.M., Angell, W. J., Apte, M.G. Indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools: an

analysis of existing information, Indoor Air 2003; (1), 53–64.

Nascimento, P. P., Alves, C., Guennadievna, E.M., Nunes, T. Indoor air quality in elementary schools of Lisbon

in Spring, Environ Geochem Health 2010; (33), 455–68.

Wolff, CH. Innate immunity and the pathogenicity of inhaled microbial particles, Int J Biol Sci. 2011; (7),

–68.

Qian, J., Hospodsky, D., Yamamoto, N., Nazaroff, W.W., Peccia, J. Size-resolved emission rates of airborne

bacteria and fungi in an occupied classroom, Indoor Air 2012; (22), 339–51.

World Health Organization. Indoor Air Pollutants: Exposure and Health Effects; Report on a WHO Meeting, EURO Reports and Studies 1983; no. 78; WHO Regional Office for Europe: Copenhagen: Denmark.

Yoon, C., Lee, K., Park, D. Indoor air quality differences between urban and rural preschools in Korea,

Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2011; (18), 333-45.

Demirel, G., Ozden, O., Dogeroglu, T., Gaga, E.O. Personal exposure of primary school children to Btex,

NO2 and ozone in Eskisehir, Turky: Relationship with indoor/outdoor concentrations risk assessment, Sci

Total Environ. 2014; (1), 473-74, 537-48.

Bornehag, C., Sundell, J., Sigsgaard, T. Dampness in buildings and health (DBH): Report from an ongoing

epidemiological investigation on the association between indoor environmental factors and health effects

among children in Sweden, Indoor Air, 2004; (14), 59–66.

Zuraimi, M.S., Tham, K.W. Indoor air quality and its determinants in tropical child care centers, Atmos

Environ. 2008; (42), 2225–39.

Bragoszewska, E., Mainka, A., Pastuszka, J.S. (2017) Concentration and size distribution of culturable

bacteria in ambient air during spring and winter in Gliwice: A typical urban area, Atmos. 2017; (8), 239.

DOI: 10.3390/atmos8120239

Bragoszewska, E., Mainka, A., Pastuszka, J.S. Bacterial aerosols in an urban nursery school in Gliwice,

Poland: A case study, Aerobiol. 2016a; (32), 469-80.

Bragoszewska, E., Mainka, A., Pastuszka, J.S. Bacterial and fungal aerosols in rural nursery schools in

Southern Poland, Atmos. 2016b; (7), 142. doi:10.3390/atmos7110142.

Hospodsky, D., Yamamoto, N., Nazaroff, W.W., Miller, D., Gorthala, S., Peccia, J. Characterizing airborne

fungal and bacterial concentrations and emission rates in six occupied children's classrooms, Indoor air.

; (25), 641-52.

Shin, S-K., Kim, J., Ha, S-M., Oh, H-S., Chun, J., Sohn, J., Yi, H. Metagenomic Insights into the Bioaerosols in

the Indoor and Outdoor Environments of Childcare Facilities, PLoS ONE. 2015; (5), e0126960.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126960

World Health Organization. Indoor air quality: Biological contaminant. Copenhagen: WHO regional

publications, 1990; European series No. 31.

Kim, K.Y., Kim, C. N. Airborne microbiological characteristics in public buildings of Korea, Build Environ.

; (42), 2188-96.

Pastuszka, J.S., Kyaw, T. P. U., Danuta, O.L., Walzlo, A., Ulfig, K. Bacterial and fungal aerosols in indoor

environment in upper Silesia, Poland. Atmos Environ. 2000; (34), 3833-42.

DeKoster, J.A.,Thorne, P.S. (1995) Bioaerosol concentrations in noncompliant. Complaint and intervention

homes in the Midwest, Amerc Indust Hygie Assoc J. 1995; (56), 576- 80.

Li, C. S., Kuo, Y. M. Microbiological indoor air quality in subtropical areas, Environ Inter. 1993; (19), 233-39.

Hinds, W. C. Aerosol technology, properties, behavior, and measurement of airborne particles. 1999; 2nd

edn. New York: Wiley.

Meklin, T., Reponen, T., Toivola, M., Koponen, V., Husman, T., Hyvarinen, A., Nevalainen, A. Size distributions

of airborne microbes in moisture-damaged and reference school buildings of two construction types, Atmos Environ. 2002; (36), 6031-39.

Bragoszewska, E., Mainka, A., Pastuszka, J. Bacterial and fungal aerosols in rural nursery schools in southern Poland, Atmos. 2016c; (7), 142. Doi: 10.3390/atmos7110142.

Bragoszewska, E., Mainka, A ., Pastuszka, J. Bacterial aerosols in an urban nursery school in Gliwice, Poland: A case study, Aerobiol. 2016d; (32), 469-80.

US Environmental Protection Agency. Child-specific Exposure factors Handbook. Environmental Protection

Agency. 2002; Washington, DC, USA.

Johnson-Restrepo, B., Kannan, K. An assessment of sources and pathways of human exposure to

polybrominated diphenyl ethers in United states, Chemos. 2005; (76), 542-48.

Bragoszewska, E. Bacterial aerosol occurring in atmospheric air in Gliwice and it is share of the total human

exposure to the bacteria absorbed by inhalation. 2014, Ph. D. Thesis. Silesian university of technology,

Gliwice, Poland.

Published
2019-08-16
How to Cite
Mostafa, D. M. (2019). Exposure Dose of Bacteria and Fungi in a Public Primary School in Beni Suef, Upper Egypt. JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN BIOLOGY, 12, 2331-2340. https://doi.org/10.24297/jab.v12i0.8386
Section
Articles