The Impact Of Some Organic And Inorganic Pollutants On Fresh Water (Rashid, River Nile), Egypt

Main Article Content

Eman Hashem Radwan Mennat Alllah Khaled Saber Mohie Eldin Khaled Saber Gehan H Fahmy

Abstract

Pollution of fresh water with organic pollutants and heavy metals has an impact on the environment of the River Nile in Egypt. The environment has become increasingly contaminated by inorganic and organic pollutants which accumulate in the food chain and affect the human health. The pollution of the fresh water environment by heavy metals and organic pollutants is due to the increasing action of flowing out discharge from various industries.


Three heavy metals; Cu, Pb, and Zn and organic pollutants as DDT, Chlordane, dieldrin and butylene were investigated in the present study in freshwater and sediment during the year (Autumn2016-summer2017) .The investigated samples were collected from Rashid, Egypt. The present study reported that the mean concentration level of both heavy metals and organic pollutants were correlated in the sediment and in the fresh water of Rashid at p< 0.001.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Articles

References

1. Marchi, B., Burlando, B., Panfoli, I., Viarengo, A. 2000. Interference of heavy metal cations with fluorescent Ca2+ probes does not affect Ca2+ measurements in living cells. Cell Calcium. Oct. 28(4), 225-31.
2. Al-Yakoob, S. 1990. Influences of particulate associated petroleum conversion products on the interactions of trace metals with Kuwait marine sediments. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Michigan, Ann. Arbor, Michigan.
3. Siung-Chang, A. 1997. A review of marine pollution issues in the Caribbean. Environ. Geochem. Health, 19, 45-55.
4. Scanes, P. R., and Roach, A. C. 1999. Determining natural background concentrations of trace metals in oysters from NSW, Australia. Envirol. poll.105, 437-446.
5. MacFarlane, G. R. 2001. Mangroves and pollution. In: Wolanski, E. (Ed.), Mangroves: An Ecosystem between Land and Sea. Filander Press, Furth, Germany, 153-169.
6. MacFarlane, G. R., Markich, S. J., Linz, K., Giffords Dustan, R. H., O'Conner, W., and Russell, R. A. 2005. The A'Koya pearl Oyster shell as an archival monitor of lead exposure. Environ. Poll. 143, 166-173.
7. Barron, M. G., and WoodBurn, K. B. 1995. Ecotoxicology of chlorpyrifos. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 144, 1-93.
8. Shukla, K. P., Singh, N. K., and Sharma, S. 2010. Bioremediation: developments, current practices and perspectives. Genet. Eng. Biotechnol. J. 3, 1-20.
9. Damalas, C. A. 2009. Understanding benefits and risks of pesticide use. Sci. Res. Essays. 4, 945-949.
10. Agrawal, A., Pandey, R. S., and Sharma, B. 2010. Water pollution with special reference to pesticide contamination in India. J. Water Res. Protec. 2, 432-448.
11. Grube, A., Donaldson, D., Kiely, T., and Wu, L. 2011 Pesticides industry sales and usage: 2006 and 2007 Market Estimates. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Washington, D.C., United States of America. 1-33.
12. Damalas, C. A., and Eleftherohorinos, I. G. 2011. Pesticide exposure, safety issues, and risk assessment indicators. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, 1402-1419.
13. EPA 2012. What is a Pesticide? [On line]. http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/about/. 16/07/2012.
14. Klerks, P. L., Xie, L., and Levinton, J. S. 2011. Quantitative genetics approaches to study evolutionary processes in ecotoxicology; a perspective from research on the evolution of resistance. Ecotoxicol. 20, 513-523.
15. Chevillard, A., Coussy, H. A., Guillard, V., Gontard, N., and Gastaldi, E. 2012. Investigating the biodegradation pattern of an ecofriendly pesticide delivery system based on wheat gluten and organically modified montmorillonites. Polym. Degrad. Stabil. 97, 2060-2068.
16. IRAC. Resistance management for sustainable agriculture and improved public health; 2013. (http://www.irac-online.org/).
17. Van Leeuwen, T., Vontas, J., Tsagkarakou, A., Dermauw, W., and Tirry, L. 2010. Acaricide resistance mechanisms in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and other important Acari: A review. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 40, 563-572.
18. Gondhalekar, A. D., Scherer, C. W., Saran, R. K., Scharf, M. E. 2013. Implementation of an indoxacarb susceptibility monitoring program using field-collected German cockroach isolates from the United States. J. Eco. Entomol., 106, 945–953.
19. Dhaliwal, G. S., Singh, R., and Chhillar, B. S. 2006. In: Essentials of agricultural entomology. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, India.
20. Bernhard, M. 1976. Sampling and analysis of biological material. Manual of methods in aquatic environment research. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. 158 (pt3), 124 p.
21. El-Moselhy, Kh. M., and Yassien, M. H. 2005. Accumulation patterns on heavy metals in venus clams, Paphia undulate (Born, 1780) and Gafrarium pectinatum (Linnaeus, 1758), from Lake Timsah, Suez Canal, Egypt. Egypt. J. Aqua. Res., 31(1), 13-28.
22. Belal, A. A. M. 1995. Ecological studies on macrobenthic invertebrates, in the intertidal zone of the Suez region. M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Science Suez Canal University, 215 pp.
23. Shriadah, M. A. 1992. Trace elements concentrations in the fish samples from Alexandria region. HIPH, 12(13). 437-444
24. Zyadah, M., Ibrahim, M., and Madkour, A. 2004. Impact of environmental parameters on benthic invertebrates and zooplankton biodiversity of the Eastern region of Delta coast at Damietta, Egypt. Egypt. J. Aquat. Biol. And Fish., 8 (4), 37-52.
25. Singh, B. R. and Steinnes, E. 1994. Soil and water contamination by heavy metals, p. 233-272. In: R. Lal and BA Stewart (eds.) Soil processes and water quality. Lewis, Boca Raton, Florida.
26. Frias-Espericueta, M. G., Ortiz-Arellano, M. A.., Isidro Osuna-Lopez, J. I., and Ronson-Paulin, J. A. 1999. Heavy metals in the rock oyster Crassostrea iridescens (Filibranchia: Osteridae) from Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico, Revista De Biologia Tropical. 47(4), 843-850.
27. Nessim, R. B., Masoud, M. S. and Maximous, N. N. 2005. Water characteristics of Alexandria Hot spots. Egy. J. Aqua. Res. 31. special Issue. 25-37.
28. El-Rayis, O. A., and Abd Allah, M. A. 2005. Contribution of some trace elements from an Egyptian huge drain to the Mediterranean sea, west of Alexandria. Egyptian Journal of aquatic Research. 31, 120-129.
29. Abou-Taleb, A. E. A., Akel, M. M., Nessim, R. B., and Ramadan, M. H. 2004. Assessment of some heavy metals and their Accumulation in Marine Organisms in Alexandria coastal Environment, Master thesis, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University 260p.
30. Attia, S. I., El-Mofty, M. M., Hilmy, M. H., Marei, A. M., and Osman, M. A. 1987. Pathological effects of wastes of some factories on some water fauna in Alexandria, M.Sc Thesis
31. Ramadan, Sh. E., Kheirallah, A. M., and Abdel-Salam, Kh. M. 2006. Factors controlling marine fouling in some Alexandria Harbour, Egypt. Mediterranean Marine Science, 712, 31-54.
32. U.S. EPA. 2005. Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. 70 FR 17765-17817
33. Aboul-Dahab, O. M. 1985. Chemical cycle of inorganic pollutants in the ecosystem west of Alexandria between Anfoushy and Agamy Ph.D. Thesis, Fac. Sci., Alexandria University.
34. Shriadah, M. A., and Emara, H. I. 1992. Iron, Manganese, Nickel, lead and cadmium in fish and crustacea from the Eastern Harbour and El-Mex Bay of Alexandria. HIPH, 21 (3), 515-25.
35. Alexandrial General Organization for Sanitary Drainge (1993)
36. El-Rayis, O. A., and El-Sabrouti, M. A. 1998. Lake Maryout: Pollution problems and proposals for restoration. Fresenius. Environ. Bull. 6, 598-604.
37. Mahmoud, A. D., Farag, E. A., El-Sherief, S. S., and Abd Ellah, Sh. M., 1999. Trace metals in the rocky shore mussel, Mytilus minimus, from Alexandria, Egypt. J. Egypt. Ger. Soc. Zool. Vol. 30 (D). Invert. Zool. and Parasit., 13-27.
38. APHA (American Public Helth Association) 1989. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 17th ed. APHA Washington, DC: Ameriacn Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Pollution Control Federation.
39. Shakweer, L. M., Shiridah, M., Fahmi, M., and Abd El Fatah, A. 2006. Distribution and concentrations of trace elements along the Mediterranean coastal water of Egypt. Egyptian J. of Aquatic Research. 32 (2), 95-127.
40. Khaled, A. 1997. A comparative study for distribution of some heavy metals in aquatic organisms fished from Alexandria region. Ph.D. Thesis, Fac. Sci. Alex. Univ. 217 p.
41. Prokop, Z., Vangheluwe, M. L., Van Sprang, P. A., Janssen, C. R., and Holoubek, I. 2003. Mobility and toxicity of metals in sandy sediments deposited on land. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 54, 65-73.
42. Al-Turki, A. L., and Helal, M. I. 2004. Mobilization of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd in polluted soil. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 7, 1972-1980.
43. Abdul Nabi, B. M., Adham, Kh. G., Sheweita, S. A., and Ibrahim, H. M. 2002. Xenobiotics and the susceptibility of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757) from lake Maryut to environmental interactions and Hepatic Biotransformations. M.Sc. Thesis. Faculty of Sci. Univ. of Alex.
44. Samir, A. M., and Badr El-Din, A., 2001. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages and morphological abnormalities as pollution proxies in two Egyptian bays: Marine Micropaleneotology 41, 193-227.
45. Nasr, S. M. 1995. Geochemistry and granulometric normalization for heavy metals in the bottom sediments off Alexandria, Egypt. Proceeding of the 2nd Conference on the Mediterranean coasted environment. MEDCOAST 95. Tarragona. Spain. 1995, 1473-81.
46. Pangos, A., Kritsotakis, K., and Varnavas, S. 1992. Metal pollution in the Heli Bay, Greece. Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer. Mediate. 32 40-51.
47. Tomazelli, A. C., Martinelli, L. A., Avelar, W. E. P., de Camargo, P.B., Fostier, A. H., Ferraz, E. S. B., Krug, F. J., and Junior, D. S. 2003. Biomonitoring of Pb and Cd in two Impacted Watersheds in Southeast Brazil Using the Freshwater Mussel Mycetopodidae) as a biological Monitor. Brazilian archives of Biology and Technology. 46 (4), 673-684.
48. Martinez, J. 2004. Practical Guideline on Environmentally Sound Management of Obsolete Pesticides in the Latin America and Caribbean Countries. Basel Convention Coordinating Centre for Latin America and the Caribbean, Montevideo, Uruguay. 65 pp.
49. Karstensen, K. H., Nguyen, K. K., Le, B. T., Pham, H. V., Nguyen, D. T., Doan, T. T., Nguyen, H. H., Tao, M. Q., Uong, D. H., and Doan, H. T. 2006. Environmentally sound destruction of obsolete pesticides in developing countries using cement kilns. Environ. Sci. Policy. 9, 577-586.
50. Shah, B. P., and Devkota, B. 2009. Obsolete Pesticides: Their Environmental and Human Health Hazards. J. Agr. Envir. 10, 51-56.
51. Dasgupta, S., Meisner, C., and Wheeler, D. 2010. Stockpiles of obsolete pesticides and cleanup priorities: A methodology and application for Tunisia. J. Environ. Manage. 91, 824-830.
52. Ortiz-Hernández, M. L., Sánchez-Salinas, E., Olvera-Velona, A. and Folch-Mallol, J. L. 2011. Pesticides in the Environment: Impacts and its Biodegradation as a Strategy for Residues Treatment. En: Pesticides-Formulations, Effects, Fate. (M. Stoytcheva, Ed.). In Tech. Croatia, pp. 551-574.
53. Vijgen, J., and Egenhofer, C., 2009. Obsolete pesticides a ticking time bomb and why we have to act now. Centre for European Policy Studies and the International HCH & Pesticides Association. Brussels, Belgium. 28 pp.
54. Farrera, P. R. 2004. Acerca de los plaguicidas y su uso en la agricultura. Ceniap Hoy. 6. [On line]. www.ceniap.gov.ve/ceniaphoy/articulos/n6/arti/farrera_r/arti/farrera_r.htm. 20/03/2012.
55. Pan-Germany, 2012. Pesticide and health hazards. Facts and figures; 1-16 (www.pan germany.org/download/Vergift_EN-201112-web.pdf) (accessed on 14 October 2013).
56. Rosell, G., Quero, C., Coll, J., and Guerrero, A. 2008. Biorational insecticides in pest management. J. Pest. Sci., 33, 103-121.
57. Carriger, J. F., and, G. M., Gardinali, P. R., Perry, W. B., Tompkins, M. S., and Fernandez, A. M. 2006. Pesticides of potential ecological concern in sediment from South Florida canals: an ecological risk prioritization for aquatic arthropods. Soil and Sediment Contamination 2006, 15, 21-45.
58. Goldstein, M. I., Lacher, T. E., Woodbridge, B., Bechard, M. J., et al., 1999. Monocrotophos induced mass mortality of Swainson’s hawks in Argentina, 1995–96. Ecotoxicology 8 (3), 201–214.
59. Schmidt, C. W. 2006. Putting the earth in play: environmental awareness and sports. Environ. Health Perspect. A 114 (5), 286–295.
60. Van-Engelsdorp, D. N., Speybroeck, J. D., Evans, et al., 2010. Weighing risk factors associated with bee colony collapse disorder by classifi cation and regression tree analysis. J. Econ. Entomol. 103 (5), 1517–1523.
61. Henry, M., Beguin, M., Requier, F. et al., 2012. A common pesticide decreases foraging success and survival in honey bees. Science 336 (6079), 348–350.
62. Farooqui, T. 2013. A potential link among biogenic amines-based pesticides, learning and memory and colony collapse disorder: a unique hypothesis. Neurochem. Int. 62 (1), 122–136 (2013) M.E. Watanabe, Colony collapse disorder: many suspects, no smoking gun. Bioscience 58 (5), 384–388.
63. Dunbabin, V. M., Airey, M., Diggle, A. J., Renton, M., Rengel, Z., Armstrong, R., Y., Chen, Y. and Siddique, K. H. M. 2011. Simulating the interaction between plant roots, soil water and nutrient flows and barriers and objects in soil using ROOTMAP. In 19th International Conference on Modelling and Simulation, Perth, Australia, 12–16 December, 2011. Retrieved from http://mssanz.org.au/modsim2011
64. Solomon, K. R., Williams, W. M., Mackay, D., Purdy, J., Giddings, J. M., and Giesy, J. P. 2014. Properties and uses of chlorpyrifos in the United States. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 231, 13–34.
65. U.S. EPA. 2004. Guidelines for Water Reuse. NTIS PB2005 106542
66. Solomon, K. R., Giesy, J. P., Kendall, R. J., Best, L. B., Coats, J. R., Dixon, K. R., Hooper, M. J., Kenaga, E. E., and McMurry, S. T. 2001. Chlorpyrifos: ecotoxicological risk assessment for birds and mammals in corn agroecosystems. Human Ecol. Risk Assess., 7, 497–632
67. Cutler, G. C., Purdy, J., Giesy, J. P., and Solomon, K. R. 2014. Risk to pollinators from the use of chlorpyrifos in the United States. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 231, 219–265.
68. Moore, D. R. J., Teed, R. S., Greer, C., Solomon, K. R., and Giesy, J. P. 2014. Refined avian risk assessment for chlorpyrifos in the United States. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 231, 163–217.
69. Giddings, J. M., Williams, W. M., Solomon, K. R., and Giesy, J. P. 2014. Risks to aquatic organisms from the use of chlorpyrifos in the United States. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 231, 119–162.
70. Williams, W. M., Giddings, J. M., Purdy, J., Solomon, K. R., and Giesy, J. P. 2014. Exposures of aquatic organisms to the organophosphorus insecticide, chlorpyrifos resulting from use in the United States. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 231, 77–118.
71. Racke, K. D. 1993. Environmental fate of chlorpyrifos. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 131, 1-150.