Main Article Content
The histological structure of the developing gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, was investigated during embryonic, larval and juvenile stages. The earliest histological events witnessed the formation of the archenteron as a more or less circular shaped cavity at stage 13. Concurrent with the first significant elongation of the embryo, the gut was evidently subdivided into foregut, midgut and hindgut at stage 16 after which there was a progressive but slow differentiation up to stage 37. Very active cellular movements occurred and resulted in the anatomical differentiation of the stomach at stage 40. During the endogenous feeding phase, two prominent features characterized the histological structure of the developing GIT. Firstly, the endodermal yolk mass resorption which occurred in a proximodistal (PD) direction and lasted up to six days after hatching. Secondly, the progressive PD cellular differentiation during which both the endodermal and mesodermal components showed a co-ordinated and concomitant histological differentiation towards the establishment of the gastrointestinal wall. Subsequent stages displayed active cellular proliferation accompanied with progressive histogenesis, which eventually led to a well-developed GIT in the 2.5 cm long larvae. The histological structure of the mature GIT is described and illustrated. Furthermore, certain morphometric parameters were measured during development.
How to Cite
BADAWY, Gamal M.. A histo-morphometric study on the developing gastrointestinal tract of the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum. JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN BIOLOGY, [S.l.], v. 6, n. 1, p. 848-860, jan. 2017. ISSN 2347-6893. Available at: <https://cirworld.com/index.php/jab/article/view/5466>. Date accessed: 30 may 2017.
Anatomy;Histology;Embryonic development;Gastrointestinal tract;Ambystoma mexicanum
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
 Arendt D, Nubler-Jung K (1999) Rearranging gastrulation in the name of yolk: evolution of gastrulation in yolk-rich amniote eggs. Mech Dev, 81: 3-22.  Asashima M, Malacinski G, Smith S (1989) Surgical manipulation of embryos. In: Armstrong J, Malacinski GM (eds) Developmental biology of the axolotl. Oxford Univ. Press, New York/ Oxford, pp 255-263.  Badawy G, Sakr S, El-Borm H (2012): Morphological and histological remodeling of the gastrointestinal tract of the toad Bufo regularis during ontogeny. Egypt. J. Exp. Biol. (Zool.), 8: 67–81.  Bancroft J, Gamble M. (2005) Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. Philadelphia, Churchill Livingstone.  Bordzilovskaya N, Dettlaff T, Duhon S, Malaciniski G (1989) Developmental-stage series of axolotl embryo. In: Armstrong J, Malaciniski GM (eds) Developmental biology of the axolotl. Oxford Univ. Press, New York/ Oxford, pp 201-219.  Chalmers A, Slack J (1998) Development of the gut in Xenopus laevis. Dev Dyn, 212: 509-521.  Elinson R (1987) Change in developmental patterns: embryos of amphibians with large eggs. In: Raff R, Raff E (eds) Development as an evolutionary process. Alan R Liss, New York, pp 1-21.  Gilbert S, Raunio A (1997) Embryology: Constructing the organism. Sinauer Ass, Sunderland, MA.  Gisbert E, Rodriguesz A, Castello-Orvay F, Williot P (1998) A histological study of the development of the digestive tract of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri) during early ontogeny. Aquaculture, 167: 195-209.  Grapin-Botton A, Melton D (2000) Endoderm development, from patterning to organogenesis. Trends Genetics, 16: 124-130.  Harris T (1967) The morphogenesis of the stomach and intestine in the salamander Ambystoma maculatum. J Morph, 122: 345-366.  Henry G, Rivanlou I, Kessler D, Hemmati-Brivanlou A, Melton D (1996) TGF-β signals and a prepattern in Xenopus laevis endodermal development. Development, 122: 1007-1015.  Holmgren S, Nilsson S (1983) Bombesin-, gastrin/CCK-, 5-hydroxytryptamine-, neurotensin-, somatostatin-, and VIPlike immunoreactivity and catecholamine flourescence in the gut of the elasmobranch, Squalus acanthias. Cell Tissue Res, 234: 595-618.  Horb M, Slack J (2001) Endoderm specification and differentiation in Xenopus embryos. Dev Biol, l 3: 1-14.  Hourdry J, Hermite A, Ferrand R (1996) Changes in the digestive tract and feeding behaviour of anuran amphibians during metamorphosis. Physiol Zool, 96: 219-251.  Kelly K (1981) Motility of the stomach and gastroduodenal junction. In: Johnson L et al. (eds) Physiology of the gastrointestinal tract. Raven Press, New York, pp 393-410.  Kuhn E, Jacobs G (1989) Metamorphosis. In: Armstrong J, Malacinski G (eds) Developmental biology of the axolotl. Oxford Univ. Press, New York/ Oxford, pp 187-197.  Kupferberg S (1997) The role of larval diet in anuran metamorphosis. Amer Zool, 37: 146-159.  Kurth T, Weiche S, Vorkel D, Kretschmar S, Menge A (2012) Histology of plastic embedded amphibian embryos and larvae. Genesis, 50:235–250.  Montgomery R, Mulberg A, Grand R (1999) Development of the human gastrointestinal tract: Twenty years of progress. Gastroenterology, 116: 702-731.  Morrison C, Miyake T, Wright J (2001) Histological study of the development of the embryo and early larva of Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae) J Morphol, 247: 172-195.  Nieuwkoop P, Faber J (1994) Normal table of Xenopus laevis (Daudin). A systematical and chronological survey of the development from the fertilized egg till the end of metamorphosis. Garland Publishing. Inc New York, London.  Ribeiero L, Sarasquete C, Dinis M (1999) Histological and histochemical development of the digestive system of Solea senegalensis larvae. Aquaculture, 171: 293-308.  Sakr S, Badawy G, El-Borm H (2014) Ultrastructural and Molecular Changes in the Developing Small Intestine of the Toad Bufo regularis. The Scientific World Journal, 2014: 1-13.  Sarasquete M, Polo A, Yufera M (1995) Histology and histochemistry of the development of the digestive system of larval gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. Aquaculture, 130: 79-92.  Schreckenberg G, Jacobson A (1975) Normal stages of development of the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum. Dev Biol, 42: 391-400.  Senarat S, Yenchum W, Poolprasert1 P (2013) Histological study of the intestine of Stoliczkae's barb Puntius stoliczkanus (Day, 1871) (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci.) 47 : 247-251.  Slack J (2001) Essential developmental biology. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford.  Stevens C, Hume I (1995) Comparative physiology of the vertebrate digestive system. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge.  Toloza E, Diamond J (1990) Ontogenetic development of nutrient transports in bullfrog intestine. Am J Physiol, 258: G760-G769.  Veggetti A, Rowlerson A, Radaelli G, Arrighi S, Domeneghini C (1999) Post-hatching development of the gut and lateral muscle in the sole. J Fish Biol, 55: 44-65.  Wacker S, Grimm K, Joos T, Winklbauer S (2000) Development and control of tissue separation at gastrulation in Xenopus. Dev Biol, 224: 428-439.  Warga R, Kimmel C (1990) Cell movements during epiboly and gastrulation in zebrafish. Development, 108: 569580.  Warga R, Nusslein-Volhard C (1999) Origin and development of the zebrafish endoderm. Development, 126: 827838.  Wells J, Melton D (1999) Vertebrate endoderm development. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol, 15: 393-410.  Yasugi S (1993) Role of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in differentiation of epithelium of vertebrate digestive organs. Dev Growth Differ, 35: 1-9.  Yasugi S, Mizuno T (1990) Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in the organogenesis of digestive tract. Zool Sci, 7: 159-170.  Zorn A, Wells J (2009) Vertebrate endoderm development and organ formation. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol, 25: 221251.