JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN AGRICULTURE https://cirworld.com/index.php/jaa Interested in submitting to this journal? We recommend that you review the About the Journal page for the journal's section policies, as well as the Author Guidelines. Authors need to register with the journal prior to submitting or, if already registered, can simply log in and begin the five-step process. Council for Innovative Research en-US JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN AGRICULTURE 2349-0837 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> Effects on Soybean Growth and Yield of Wheat-Soybean Intercropping System https://cirworld.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/7906 <p>It has been demonstrated that soybean <em>(Glycine max)</em> produces lower yields at relay intercropping with wheat <em>(Triticum aestivum) </em>than if it is sown as a sole crop. However, most studies considered wider or irregular soybean row spacing, compromising its capacity to recover after wheat harvest. This work studied the stress effects in relay soybean intercropping and suggests narrowing row spacing to improve soybean performance. The aims were (i) to compare growth and yield of two planting patterns and (ii) to separate the effect of water stress (WS) from the effects of other stress factors (OSF) induced by wheat on intercropping soybean. WS was evaluated comparing above-ground dry and grain yield of irrigated and non irrigated intercropping soybean, and OSF was evaluated comparing intercropping soybean with another treatment in which wheat straw (aerial biomass) was eliminated at soybean emergence, both irrigated treatments. In wheat, similar yields were obtained in treatments with an intercropping planting pattern with two rows for wheat and one for soybean (2:1) compared to three rows for wheat and one row for soybean (3:1). However, intercropping soybean at narrow row spacing (52 cm; 2:1) improve yielded 23% more than intercropping at 70 cm (3:1). During wheat-soybean coexistence, OSF prevailed on soybean and this effect persisted in later stages. After wheat harvest, OSF reduced the amount of light interception from R1 to R5 and depressed the crop growth rate (CGR) in 34%. However, in this period, WS also affected the radiation use efficiencies (RUE) which explained the greater fraction (66%) of the total stress induced by wheat in soybean CGR. Intercrop soybean yielded 182 g m<sup>-2</sup> less compared to the unstressed sole crop control. Considering the wheat effects on soybean growth, 63% (116.5 g m<sup>-2</sup>) of the total yield lost were due to WS. Therefore, most of the performance of relay intercropping soybean was linked with water disponibility since early stages. However, at optimum water condition wheat competition by light and resources also affected soybean yield (OSF: 37%).</p> Fernando Ross Pablo Eduardo Abbate ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-03 2018-12-03 9 1498 1510 10.24297/jaa.v9i0.7906 Determining Morphological Traits for Selecting Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) with Improved Early-Season Forage Production https://cirworld.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/7932 <p>Winter wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em> L.) is the major annual crop in the Southern Great Plains of the USA grown as dual-purpose (forage and grain) crop. Wheat breeding has focused on maximizing grain yield and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Because of a lack of clearly defined selection criteria for breeding forage-type wheat, breeders usually rely on very laborious means to measure forage quantity and quality or they use imprecise visual estimates to quantify forage production. In a series of experiments conducted at Vernon, TX during 2003-2005, we determined correlations between selected morphological traits and the early-season forage DM yield in a range of wheat breeding lines and commercial cultivars evaluated by the Wheat Breeding Program of Texas A&amp;M AgriLife Research. Early-season forage DM yield was highly correlated with tiller number, leaf length and width, and inversely correlated with specific leaf weight. Environmental variables modified the responses. A number of wheat breeding lines and cultivars had combined three out of the four evaluated morphological traits, including Abilene Ag Exp., Cutter, Fannin, HG-9, Duster, TAM 110, TX01M5009, TX01V6016, TX03M1179, TX04M410009, and Weather master 135. These cultivars/breeding lines have been recommended for dual-purpose use; thus, the morphological traits evaluated in our studies were desirable for selection of wheat with improved forage productivity.</p> Dariusz P Malinowski Jackie C Rudd William E Pinchak Jason A Baker ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-03 2018-12-03 9 1511 1533 10.24297/jaa.v9i0.7932 Disinfection of leafy vegetables with activated waters https://cirworld.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/7944 <p>The effect of ionized aqueous solutions (anolytes and catholytes) has been tested in lettuce treatment for decontamination and preservation of their freshness for a longer time. Anolytes and catholytes prepared without salt addition, as well as with 0.8% NaCl and with a combination of 0.4% NaCl and 0.4% Na<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub> were used. Opportunities to potentiate their action were also tested by adding 96% ethanol at a final concentration of 1%. It has been found that the three tested anolytes show the highest antimicrobial activity. This activity was maximal after potentiation by the addition of 96% ethanol at a final concentration of 1%, and after 15 minutes no viable microorganisms were isolated from the leaves of the lettuce examined. The catholyte obtained by activation with NaCl also exhibited high antimicrobial activity. After storage for 2 weeks, the solutions retained to a large extent these properties and especially the anolyte obtained with Na<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub>. The freshness of lettuce was kept for a longest time (10 days) after treatment for 15 minutes with salt-free anolyte, as well as with catholyte without salts. In the anolyte this property is retained after 14 days of storage, but in the catholyte it decreased somewhat after storage. The remaining lettuce, including the untreated controls and these treated with tap water, stayed fresh for 2 days, for the shortest time - the treated with an anolyte with 1% 96% ethanol..</p> Prof. Teodora P. Popova Toshka E. Petrova ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-03 2018-12-03 9 1534 1545 10.24297/jaa.v9i0.7944 Diseases and Pests Associated to Tomato Cultivation in the Locality of Daloa (Côte d’Ivoire) https://cirworld.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/7935 <p>This study aims at identifying the major tomato pests and diseases in the locality of Daloa. To achieve this goal, surveys were conducted among tomato farmers in the city, the outskirts and the villages of Daloa. They consisted in questioning farmers about their identity, the cropping practices and the problems encountered in the practice of tomato cultivation. Then another step consisted in monitoring tomato farms for observing diseases and pests associated to tomato. The results of the study showed that tomato cultivation is concentrated in rural areas and is carried out by men with a very low level of education. The most cultivated varieties are petromech and cobra because of their resistance to certain pests. Several tomato diseases have been identified, however the most significant were seedling damping-off (<em>Pythium sp, Fusarium sp, Rhizoctonia solani</em>), plant wilting (<em>Fusarium oxyporum </em>and<em> Ralstonia solanacerum</em>), fruit anthracnose (<em>Colletotrichum sp.</em>), apical necrosis and root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne sp.). The main pests observed on tomato in the locality were <em>Helicoverpa armigera</em> (Lepidoptera), <em>Bemisia tabaci</em> (Homoptera), <em>Dysdercus sp</em>. (Hemiptera). This study provides a pathway from which further studies including mapping the different diseases could be conducted so as to better monitor and protect tomato cultivation.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Charlotte Dolou Tonessia Francis Eric Soumahin Boye Mambé Auguste Denise Niangoran Yate Atse Toussaint Djabla Jean Marc Zoh Olivia Dominique et Kouadio Yatty Ju ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-03 2018-12-03 9 1546 1557 10.24297/jaa.v9i0.7935 Impact of Elicitation by Methyl Jasmonate and Ethephon on Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) Protection Against Fusarium Oxysporum F. Sp. Vasinfectum https://cirworld.com/index.php/jaa/article/view/7902 <p>The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of methyl jasmonate and ethephon on cotton against Fusarium wilt. As well, cotton plants were treated in the field by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), ethephon (ETH) and the association of methyl jasmonate and ethephon (MeJA + ETH) and inoculated by <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> f. sp. Vasinfectum (FOV). The incidence of the disease caused by FOV was evaluated every 10 days up to the 150th day after inoculation. The protection afforded to cotton following treatment by stimulators was assessed by determining the mortality rate of plants treated and inoculated FOV compared with untreated and inoculated controls. The degree of protection of cotton from Fusarium wilt was also determined through growth parameters, foliar pigment content (Chlorophylls and carotenoids) and an evaluation of the rate of lines. The results showed better protection of the cotton plants treated by the stimulators and inoculated by FOV through an increase in the number of healthy leaves, stem height, and stem diameter. This protection was also confirmed by an increase in photosynthetic activity of plants and a reinforcement of cell walls. The combination of these two molecules (MeJA + ETH) was better to induce this resistance against FOV compared to each of the two taken separately. The use of natural defence stimulators (SDN) is therefore an effective means of protecting cotton from FOV. Their application in the agricultural environment could contribute to the development of a well-reasoned, sustainable agriculture that is more respectful of the environment and human health.</p> Kouakou Tanoh Hilaire Ncho Achi Laurent Yapo Sopie Edwige Salomé Amari Ler-N’Ogn Dadé Georges Elisée ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-03 2018-12-03 9 1558 1578 10.24297/jaa.v9i0.7902