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CIRWORLD en-US JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN AGRICULTURE 2349-0837 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> Annual Reviewer Acknowledgement <p>The editorial team of the journal would like to thank the reviewers for their work in referring manuscripts during 2018.</p> Kewen Zhao ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-31 2018-08-31 8 Technical Efficiency of Plantain Production in Ekiti Southwest Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria <p>This study examined the technical efficiency of plantain production in Ekiti Southwest Local Government Area (LGA) of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The study used multistage sampling techniques for data collection. Data were collected from 90 plantain farmers through well-structured questionnaires from the LGA with three towns purposively selected. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, budgetary analysis and stochastic frontier production model. Results from descriptive analysis showed that 48.88 percent of the plantain farmers had secondary education and above. Majority of the respondents (66.67 percent) had between 5 and 8 members that made up the household in the study area. Findings further showed that majority of the respondents produced on small scale with average plantain farm size of 0.96 hectares. The farmers were fairly experienced with 44.44 percent of them had more than 15 years of farming experience. With mean profit of ₦251,500 per hectare and percentage profit of 63.11 percent, the venture was considered to be highly profitable. Farmers who invested ₦1 realized revenue of ₦0.63. The RTS parameter (0.931) was obtained from the summation of the coefficients of the estimated inputs (elasticities) which indicated that plantain production in the study area was in Stage II of the production surface meaning that these variables were efficiently utilized. Depreciation, hired labour, family labour, farm size and quantity of suckers planted were the significant variables that influence efficiency of the plantain farmers. Age, land acquisition and access to credit contributed significantly to technical inefficiency. Among the most prevalent constraints were; price fluctuation (72.22%), heavy wind (70.00%), high cost of farm input (68.89%), pests and diseases and pilferage (63.33%) each, insufficient credit facility, storage facility and poor agricultural extension services (62.22%) respectively.</p> Rufus Sunday Owoeye F. O. Osundare ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-01 2018-03-01 8 1203 1213 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7142 Corn (Zea mays L.) Response to Hybrid, Row Spacing, and Plant Populations in the Blacklands of Central Texas <p>Field studies were conducted during the 2013 and 2014 growing seasons in central Texas near Taylor (30.5326<sup>o</sup> N; 97.4548<sup>o </sup>W) to determine the effect of hybrid, row spacing, and plant populations on corn growth and yield.&nbsp; Two corn hybrids (BH 8844 and BH 8900) were compared at 53,000, 62,000, and 71,000 plants ha<sup>-1</sup> planted one row on a single bed or twin rows (spaced approximately 20 cm apart) on a single bed. Plant counts were taken 4 to 6 wk after planting while ear height measurements were taken approximately four wk prior to corn harvest. Crop yield was determined by harvesting all eight rows of each plot with a combine. Weights were adjusted to 12% moisture. Experimental design was a factorial arrangement using a randomized complete block design with corn hybrid (2), row spacing (2), and seeding rates (3) as factors.&nbsp; Data were analyzed using PROC GLM with SAS (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC) and treatment means separated by Fisher's protected least significant difference test at P = 0.05.&nbsp; Plant height was not affected by plant populations or row spacing as only hybrid response was significant with BH 8900 being taller in both years. Row spacing affected ear height in one of two years with the twin row spacing having a taller ear placement in the dryer year. No differences were seen with ear placement with respect to plant populations. In the dry year, yield of BH 8844 decreased as plant populations increased; however, no differences were noted with BH 8900.&nbsp; In the wet year, the inverse was seen with increased yield with higher populations with both hybrids. The twin row system increased BH 8900 yield in 2013. In 2014, with BH 8844, the single row system outyielded twin row and no differences noted with BH 8900.&nbsp; The results were quite variable and this was due in part to rainfall events in the two years.&nbsp; Plant and ear height was influenced by hybrid while yield response was somewhat affected by population and row spacing.&nbsp; A hybrid x row width response was noted indicating that certain hybrids will respond to row spacing more than others.</p> James Grichar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-22 2018-02-22 8 1214 1223 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7094 Boron induces seed germination and seedling growth of Hordeum vulgare L. under Nacl stress <p>Boron (B), an essential micronutrient, helps the plants to complete their life cycle successfully. Therefore, the present experiment was conducted to study (1) the role of B in seed germination and seedling growth, (2) the toxicity effect of B in seed germination and seedling growth and (3) the role of B in tolerance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. ‘Bakore’) to NaCl stress. Under NaCl stress and non-stress conditions, application of high levels of B (100 µM) decreased parameters of germination (G%, VI, GI and MGT), growth (RL, SL, RFW, SFW, RDW and SDW), except the accumulation of Pro and MDA in barley seedlings. Also, a fluorescence study reveals that production of ROS (H2O2 and O2 •—) and non-viable cells increased in roots of barley seedlings treated with NaCl and high dose of B. An alteration in anatomical structure of barley seedlings was observed with the application of NaCl and high dose of B. However, a low concentration of B (50 µM) proved best and increased all germination and growth traits of barley seedlings by increasing further accumulation of Pro. Also, 50 µM of B significantly increased the biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, b and total Chl) and deceased formation of ROS and viable cells in roots. Therefore, concluded that sufficient dose of B could be beneficial for barley plant in improving the tolerance to NaCl stress.</p> Saud A. Alamri Manzer H Siddiqui Mutahhar Y. Al-Khaishani Hayssam M. Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-01 2018-03-01 8 1224 1234 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7116 Modification of Topsoil Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Macroinvertebrates Structure Consecutive to the Conversion of Secondary Forests into Rubber Plantations in Grand-Lahou, Côte d’Ivoire <p>The objective of this investigation was to assess the modifications of topsoil physico-chemical characteristics and macroinvertebrates structure consecutive to the conversion of secondary forests into rubber plantations and how these change with the aging of the plantations and the season. The sampling design was constituted of four treatments: secondary forest referred to as baseline land use, 7-, 12- and 25 year old rubber plantations. Three replications per land use type were randomly established in each of the selected treatments, thus totaling 12 sampling areas. On each sampling area, a 40 m transect was established. The litter dwelling and topsoil (0-10 cm) macroinvertebrates were sampled, respectively, by using the pitfall traps and monoliths (50 cm × 50 cm × 10 cm) following the Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility method. The soil physical and chemical parameters were measured along the 40 m transect. The results showed that the conversion of secondary forest into plantations was characterized by a modification of the density of soil macroinvertebrates (dry season: -50 and -24% vs. rainy season: -61 and +32%), taxonomic richness of soil macroinvertebrates (dry season: +7 and -14% vs. rainy season: -21 and -14%), water content (dry season: -41 and -5% vs. rainy season: -62 and -31%), bulk density (dry season: +6 and -3% vs. rainy season: +33 and +29%), soil organic carbon (dry season: -73 and -59% vs. rainy season: -67 and -51%) and total nitrogen (dry season: -68 and -58% vs. rainy season: -64 and -52%), respectively, after about 7 and 25 years of conversion. The restoration processes did not cause significant changes in the soil physico-chemical and biological characteristics after 25 years of forests conversion. However, the study highlighted the improvement in the soil ecological quality due to a reduction in soil degradation, and an increase in the density of macroinvertebrates (+235%), taxono mic richness (+9%), water content (+84%), soil organic carbon (+50%) and total nitrogen (+33%) in the 25 year old plantations compared to the 7 year old plantations.</p> N'dri Kouadio Julien Kévin Kouadio N’Guessan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-13 2018-03-13 8 1235 1255 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7101 Marketing Margins for Imported and Local Rice in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria <p>The study was carried out in Akure, Ondo State. Multi stage and sampling technique procedure was used which involved purposive and random sampling methods in selecting the respondents with the aid of well-structured questionnaire with interview schedule. Descriptive statistical analysis, budgetary techniques, marketing margin analysis as well as Gini-coefficient and Herfindahl Hirshman Index was used for the analysis of variables. The result reviewed that more of the imported brands of rice in all the four market sampled than the local rice, with local rice margin as percentage of total marketing margin (16.95%) lower than that of local rice (17.78%) the average marketing efficiency of 349.91% and 467.89% were obtained from imported and local rice respectively while the Gini- coefficient (GC) Herfindahl Hirshman Index (HHI) values of 0.68 and 0.28 were obtained reviewing that rice marketing were highly concentrated with non-competitive practices showing disparity in earnings. The prevailing duration stocks were held in shops by trader was three to four weeks and the major sources of obtaining market information was mobile phone. The study recommends provision of storage facilities for the traders and also improvement in the quality of local rice with policy implementation that discourage importation of commodity as a way out of boosting and encouraging local rice production and its consumption.</p> Toluwase Sow Mo Sedowo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-23 2018-03-23 8 1256 1267 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7163 Nutritional Features of Biryani as The Basis for The Formation of An Entrepreneurial Mode in Biryani Market <p>Biryani is a traditional spice-flavored rice-based delicacy containing meat and vegetables. In this paper, the preparation of Biryani, its composition, nutritional value and entrepreneurial possibilities are discussed. The nutritional value per 100 g of product of different types of Biryani is given. A diagram of the cooking procedure of this dish is presented. The Biryani market is compared with the fast food market. Attention is also paid to the most important economic factors that influence the consumer's decision when buying food. These are: per capita income, price of the food relative to other products, as well as changes in the size and structure of the population. An additional advantage over the competition is outside the links between the restaurants and customers, business partners and suppliers. The purchase of this dish is most often associated with the processes of interacting with customers, with consumer safety, shaping their expectations, market information and customer behavior. This research suggests how establishing a modern Biryani market. Experimenting new variants of this dish and taking advantage of innovative digital solutions could be a strategy for promoting entrepreneurial development and even reducing youth unemployment.</p> Dr. Krishnan Umachandran Barbara Sawicka Noori Abdul-Nabi Nasir Antonella Pasqualone ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-24 2018-03-24 8 1268 1278 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7147 Evaluation of Endogenous Sugars, Chlorogenic Acid and Caffeine Associated with Direct Somatic Embryogenesis of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) <p>Coffee is one of the most important cash crops cultivated in the world with great economic importance. During the induction of somatic embryogenesis, there are different endogenous compounds involved in the success or failure of the somatic embryogenesis response and these compounds determine the specificity of cellular responses. This present experiment identified and quantified endogenous sugars, chlorogenic acid and caffeine present during somatic embryogenesis of ‘Ruiru 11’. Laboratory experiments were set up at Coffee Research Institute, Ruiru-Kenya between 2014 and 2016. Third leaf pair explants were excised from 8-monthold greenhouse-grown mother plants and cultured in half strength Murashige and Skoog basal salts augmented with Thidiazuron. Once embryos had developed, the cultures were analysed for endogenous sugars, caffeine and chlorogenic acid using HPLC. Generally, green embryogenic cultures contained more and higher quantities of the compounds. Glucose and fructose were highest (38.95 mg/g and 45.43 mg/g respectively) in leaf discs of brown non-embryogenic cultures. Sucrose was highest (62.15 mg/g) in embryos of green embryogenic cultures. Embryos of green embryogenic cultures had the highest chlorogenic acid (5.3 mg/g), whereas caffeine was highest (0.55 mg/g) in embryos of brown embryogenic cultures. Endogenous fructose and glucose inhibited embryogenesis, while sucrose, chlorogenic acids and caffeine promoted embryogenesis and are potential biomarkers for embryogenesis. Other biochemical compounds such as organic acids should be identified and their role in coffee somatic embryogenesis determined.</p> D. K. Isutsa R. N. Mayoli A. B. Nyende C. M. Mweu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-30 2018-05-30 8 1279 1292 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7376 Evaluation of Endogenous Phytocomponents and Amino Acids Associated with Direct Somatic Embryogenesis of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) <p>Coffee is one of the most important crops cultivated in the world for use in beverages and confectionaries. Embryogenesis is a complex process that begins with a single cell and ends with the formation of mature embryos. Somatic embryo development involves accumulation of complex metabolites and storage reserves. This present experiment identified and quantified endogenous phytocomponents and amino acids present during somatic embryogenesis of ‘Ruiru 11’. Laboratory experiments for this study were set up in the Coffee Research Institute, Kenya at Ruiru. Third leaf pair explants were excised from 8-month-old greenhouse-grown mother plants sterilized and cultured in half strength Murashige and Skoog basal salts augmented with Thidiazuron. Once embryos had developed, the cultures were analysed for phytocomponents using GCMS and HPLC. The results showed that palmitoleic and stearic acids were highest (23.3 µg/g and 69.9 µg/g respectively) in brown embryogenic cultures. Cis 7,8 epoxy-2-methyl octadecane was highest (253 µg/g) in green embryogenic cultures. (Z)-3-Tetradecene was highest (25 µg/g) in brown non-embryogenic cultures. Z, Z-3,13- Octadecedien-1-ol and (Z)-7-Hexadecenal were highest (32.1 µg/g and 70.2 µg/g respectively) in green embryogenic cultures. Alanine content was highest (4.4 µg/g) in embryos of brown cultures. Amino acids, fatty acids and their derivatives are potential biomarkers for embryogenesis. Other phytocomponents should be identified and their role in coffee somatic embryogenesis determined. Further studies regarding the status of the phytocomponents identified in the present study, especially in particular stages of embryo development are needed to propose treatments to improve coffee somatic embryo development.</p> D. K. Isutsa R. N. Mayoli A. B. Nyende C. M. Mweu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-30 2018-05-30 8 1293 1308 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7377 Relationships of Selected Endogenous Factors Associated with Direct Somatic Embryogenesis of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) <p>Coffee is one of the most important cash crops produced in the world with great economic returns to growers and national gross domestic product. Somatic embryogenesis is a morphogenetic processes leading to plantlet regeneration and these processes are coupled with changes in the levels of primary metabolites. The present experiment established relationships of endogenous substances with direct somatic embryogenesis of coffee ‘Ruiru 11’. Laboratory experiments were set up at Coffee Research Institute, Ruiru-Kenya between 2014 and 2017. The set up was in a completely randomised design, replicated three times and repeated once. Third leaf pair explants were excised from 8-month-old greenhouse-grown mother plants and cultured in half strength Murashige and Skoog basal salts augmented with Thidiazuron. Once embryos had developed, the cultures were analysed for endogenous substances using HPLC and GCMS. Sucrose, phenolics, alkaloids, amino acids, fatty acids and their derivatives correlated positively, whereas fructose and glucose correlated negatively with the other biochemical components. Endogenous sucrose, chlorogenic acid, caffeine amino acid, fatty acids and their derivatives are potential biomarkers for coffee somatic embryogenesis, whereas endogenous fructose and glucose are inhibitors of the same. Further studies regarding the status of the biochemical components, especially in particular stages of embryo development should be conducted to establish treatments that can improve coffee direct somatic embryo development.</p> D. K. Isutsa R. N. Mayoli A. B. Nyende C. M. Mweu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-01 2018-06-01 8 1309 1338 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7378 The Ethanol Dip and Vapor Delays Chilling Injury of Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L. cv. Ceylan), During Storage. <p>In this study, the effects of ethanol which is applied in different forms as liquid and vapor after harvest on chilling injury, color and overall quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Ceylan) during storage were examined. For the liquid ethanol treatments, cucumber fruits were immersed in water comprising different concentration of ethanol for 5 minutes. In order to apply ethanol in the form of steam, a pad was firstly impregnated with ethanol at different doses. This pad was placed in a polystyrene foam dishes, and after the cucumber fruit is placed on it, the dishes wrapped with stretch film. The doses for used the both ethanol treatment as: Controldip(CD), Controlvapor (CV), 200 µL/L, 400 µL/L , 800 µL/L and 1600 µL/L. It was concluded that the liquid ethanol treatment at the dose of 1600 µL/L was effectively delayed of chilling injury, softening and decay rate.</p> Rezzan Kasim Mehmet Ufuk Kasim Kubra Yasar Tugce Sahin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-01 2018-06-01 8 1339 1349 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7399 Defoliation and Pre-Harvest Drop of Camu-Camu Fruits in Floodable Area <p>The effect of defoliation and gibberellic acid (GA3) on the fall of the fruit in the induced period of harvest of Myrciaria dubia (camu-camu), in a flooded area on the banks of the Amazon River, Iquitos-Peru, was evaluated. The soil is clayey-silty with 2.15% organic matter, pH 6.29, 0.10% Nitrogen, 40.76 ppm Phosphorus and 228 ppm potassium. The average temperature is 27.45 ° C, relative humidity of 86% and 3111.4 mm of rain. The defoliation was carried out with NaCl solution in water (50 g.L-1). GA3, was applied every 15 days at doses of 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg.L.-1. The variables were evaluated: number of flowers per branch (FLR1-4), number of flowers per plant (FLP1-4),% of fruits retained in phase 3 (FR3),% of fruits retained in phase 5 (FR5), weight of fruits (PF), number of harvested fruits (FC), approximate yield of fruits (RAF), and the real fruit yield (RRF). The design was completely randomized (DCA), in 2x4 factorial arrangement. Defoliation significantly reduced FLP1-4 from 6938 to 3701, while GA3 did not influence that character. Defoliation significantly increased the FR3 retention, but reduced the PF and FC. GA3 significantly influenced FLR1-4, FR3 and PF. In FR5, no statistical difference was recorded for either D or GA3, nor was there significant interaction between the two defoliation and GA3 factors. For FC, RAF and RRF, highly significant differences were found for Defoliation, with superiority of non-defoliated plants but no differences were found for GA3 doses. It is concluded that in F3 the defoliation favored significantly, effect that was diluted in F5, while the application of GA3 negatively influenced this retention. Fruit yield was significantly higher in non-defoliated plants without showing significant difference between GA3 doses.</p> Mario Pinedo Panduro Carlos Zumba Lopez Elvis Paredes Davila Jose Ramirez Chung Carlos Abanto Rodriguez Jaime Durand Valencia Edvan Alves Chagas Dennis Del Castillo Torres ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-01 2018-07-01 8 1350 1373 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7432 Research on Tomato Nitrogen Content Nondestructive Testing Method Based on Multidimensional Image Processing Technology <p>This paper is aimed at greenhouse tomato nitrogen detection using hyperspectral imaging combined with three dimensional laser scanning technology. This technology extracts the nitrogen hyperspectral feature image and the plant three dimensional morphological characters, to achieve the rapid quantitative analysis of nitrogen in tomato. The characteristic spectrum of nitrogen was extracted, and the mean intensity characteristic of the image feature was obtained. Then based on the acquisition of the tomato hyperspectral image data cube at different nitrogen levels, the sensitive region stepwise regression combined with correlation analysis was performed. Based on the acquired three dimensional laser scanning data of tomatoes, the stem diameter, the plant height and other biomass characteristics of different nitrogen levels were obtained by establishing the spatial geometric model of tomato three dimensional point cloud. A multi-feature fusion model for tomato nitrogen detection was established by partial least square regression. The results showed that the R<sup>2</sup> in the constructed model was 0.94, with the accuracy significantly better than that of the single feature model established by using hyperspectral image and three dimensional laser scanning.</p> Xue Wei Zhang Xiao Dong Zhang Hanping Mao Hong Yan Gao Zi Yu Zuo Yu Qiang Ruan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-11 2018-07-11 8 1374 1383 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7469 Optimization of Purslane Plant Using Cooking and Pickling Processes for Reducing Oxalate Conten <p>Purslane (<em>Portulaca oleracea</em>) is an edible plant rich in benefcial nutrients. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the chemical composition, minerals, fatty acid analysis, phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity of purslane plant. In addition, the effect of cooking of purslane at different temperatures (60, 80 and 100 °C), for various durations (5, 10, 15 and 20 minute), and pickling for various durations (3, 6 and 9 days) on oxalate content. Sensory evaluation of quality characteristics and fatty acids analysis of biscuits fortified by purslane powder after reducing oxalate content were carried out. Protein, fat, ash and fiber contents of purslane were 5.64, 5.30, 23.42 and 16.03 %, respectively on dry matter basis. The highest concentration mineral was K (4694.0 mg/100g), while the lowest concentration mineral was Zn (0.93 mg/100g). Total phenolic and radical scavenging activity of purslane were 193.22 mg/100g gallic acid equivalent and 87.29 %, respectively. Purslane contains high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids, especially linolenic acid (40.4 % of total fatty acids). On the other hand, the soluble fraction of total oxalate content of purslane cooked for 20 minutes at 60, 80 and 100 °C were 34.65, 19.84 and 15.84 %, respectively. While, the soluble fraction of total oxalate content of purslane pickled for 0, 3, 6 and 9 days were 47.80, 36.23, 25.60 and 14.39 %, respectively. Fortification of biscuits using purslane powder after treatments led to improvement of the&nbsp;quality characteristics of product. <em>Portulaca oleracea</em> could be used as a good source of minerals, antioxidants and omega-3 especially for functional food and nutraceutical applications.</p> Waleed Z Badawy Salwa G Arafa Mihaly Czako ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-30 2018-07-30 8 1384 1398 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7525 Cooperative Learning in Veterinary Science <p>Cooperative learning is an instructional method based on teamwork, by reinforcing a student´s own learning as well as the learning of his or her fellow members. Thus, this kind of cooperative model achieves personal and team success at the same time. With this aim, an experience was designed where students from veterinary surgery and propaedeutics from the Universities of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (ULPGC) and CEU Cardenal Herrera of Valencia (UCH-CEU) simultaneously performed surgical practices in the Veterinary Medicine Degree. Propaedeutic students were evaluated previously and after the practical period with surgery multiple-choice questions and results were compared. The obtained results allow us to conclude that students after interaction gained advanced knowledge in veterinary surgery.</p> Déborah Chicharro Alcántara Joaquin Jesus Sopena-Juncosa Elena Damiá-Giménez Belén Cuervo-Serrato Mónica Rubio-Zaragoza José María Carrillo-Poveda José Raduan Jaber-Mohamad José Manuel Vilar-Guereño ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-30 2018-08-30 8 1399 1407 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7543 Interaction Between Oryctes Rhinoceros and Leaves’ Nutrient Content in Oil Palm <p>A study meant to evaluate the relationship between the presence of Oryctes rhinoceros to the oil palm in relation to the leaves’ nutrient content which is Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K). Appropriate fertilization is one of the methods that can help to suppress the pests’ presence in the field. In general, insects’ pests are attracted to the plants that are supplied with excess supply of nutrient as it can help them to develop better in future as these nutrient play their roles in aiding through growths and insects’ fecundity. Data on nutrient status were collected were Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn). These data had been collected twice per month which were at the middle and at the end of each month. Four samples of leaves were taken from four sampling oil palm trees of each treatment. Leaves from ninth or seventeenth fronds were chosen as it is the best most ideal fronds to be used for leaf analysis to identify the nutrient content. The result of this study showed that Phosphorus (P) exerted a strong positive relationship with the presence of Oryctes rhinoceros in the oil palm while Potassium (K) showed a strong negative relationship between the two variables. Thus, developing awareness to the growers to this nutrients-balancing issue would be good for future agriculture in future as it is clear now that balanced nutrition is primordial to ensure availability of nutrients uptake by plants.</p> Mohd Rasdi Zaini Nurul Farahana Hazira Hazlee Fathul Nabila Abdul Karim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-30 2018-08-30 8 1408 1414 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7585 The Mechanism Behind the Promotive Effect of Foliar Application of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA) in Tomato Plants Under Salt Stress <p>The effect of foliar ALA application on the internal ALA concentration in tomato plants grown in soil containing high levels of NaCl&nbsp; was investigated. Six week old plants were treated with 100, 50, and 25 mmol/L NaCl on a weekly basis and they were simultaneously treated with 5-ALA at a concentration of 5%&nbsp; by foliar spray. The effect of foliar ALA application on plant growth, chlorophyll contents and internal ALA concentration was studied. The internal ALA shoot concentrations ranged between 27.50±2.12 and 34.35±1.48 µg g<sup>-1</sup> dry weight with no significant difference (<em>p&lt;0.05</em>) recorded between plants treated with NaCl alone and those treated with both NaCl and ALA. The concentrations of chlorophyll a, b, and c were elevated only in tomato plants treated with NaCl and ALA, whereas their levels decreased in plants treated with NaCl only. An adverse significant effect (<em>p&lt;0.05</em>) of salinity stress was recorded on plants length, number of leaves, shoot and root fresh and dry weight. However, no significant difference&nbsp; (<em>p&lt;0.05</em>) was observed in plants treated with&nbsp; NaCl alone with those treated with&nbsp; NaCl plus ALA in comparison to the control. The results of the present study suggested that foliar ALA treatment had no effect on the Na and Cl uptake, the internal ALA concentration, and had no role in adverting the effects of salinity on plant growth. The present study has proven that foliar ALA is directly used by the plant for the synthesis of chlorophyll in order to increase the photosynthetic rate and thus to help tomato plants to survive the salinity stress.</p> Afnan Freije ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-30 2018-08-30 8 1415 1423 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7498 Comparison of Sunn Pest Damage and Genotypic Differences in Bread Wheat Varieties by SDS-Page Analysis <p>The research was carried out in five different locations in 2010 and 2011 years under in the ecological conditions of Hayrabolu, Malkara, Suleymanpasa, sarköy and Saray district. Twenty-three bread wheat varieties were used as material in the study. the study carried out in the same area was made up of 2 different growing conditions, namely field conditions and a covered area covered with sunlight.</p> <p>The sunn pest damage rates in wheat varieties grown in the open area were ranged from of 6.0. to 0.10 %.&nbsp; The sunn pest damage rates in bread wheat varieties grown in closing area was changed between 10.37 to 23.17% with a significant increase. the average of the highest sunn pest damage in two years was observed the numbered 15, 10, 1, 11 and 16 cultivars, while the lowest values was obtained form 4, 13, 8 and 3 varieties</p> <p>According to the SDS-PAGE analysis in order to determine the genotypic differences of bread wheat varieties, protein band number in bread wheat varieties was ranged from 17 to 21, the density and molecular weight of protein bands were significant differences among the varieties. Protein bands are distributed predominantly in the omega region while in the gamma and beta regions a small number of bands were observed. There are no bands in bread wheat varieties in the alpha region.</p> Baser Ismet Akyürek S. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-29 2018-09-29 8 1424 1432 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7666 Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts on Cotton Yield using Cropsyst and Regression Models <p>The regional as well as the international crop production is expected to be influenced by climate change. This study describes an assessment of simulated potential cotton yield using CropSyst, a cropping systems simulation model, in Northern Greece. CropSyst was used under the General Circulation Model CGCM3.1/T63 of the climate change scenario SRES B1 for time periods of climate change 2020-2050 and 2070-2100 for two planting dates. Additionally, an appraisal of the relationship between climate variables, potential evapotranspiration and cotton yield was done based on regression models. Multiple linear regression models based on climate variables and potential evapotranspiration could be used as a simple tool for the prediction of crop yield changes in response to climate change in the future. The CropSyst simulation under SRES B1, resulted in an increase by 6% for the period 2020-2050 and a decrease by about 15% in cotton yield for 2070-2100. For the earlier planting date a higher increase and a slighter reduction was observed in cotton yield for 2020-2050 and 2070-2100, respectively. The results indicate that alteration of crop management practices, such as changing the planting date could be used as potential adaptation measures to address the impacts of climate change on cotton production.</p> Pantazis Georgiou Panagiota Koukouli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-29 2018-09-29 8 1433 1451 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7779