JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN AGRICULTURE Interested in submitting to this journal? We recommend that you review the About the Journal page for the journal's section policies, as well as the Author Guidelines. Authors need to register with the journal prior to submitting or, if already registered, can simply log in and begin the five-step process. CIRWORLD en-US JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN AGRICULTURE 2349-0837 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> Technical Efficiency of Plantain Production in Ekiti Southwest Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria <p>This study examined the technical efficiency of plantain production in Ekiti Southwest Local Government Area (LGA) of Ekiti State, Nigeria. The study used multistage sampling techniques for data collection. Data were collected from 90 plantain farmers through well-structured questionnaires from the LGA with three towns purposively selected. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, budgetary analysis and stochastic frontier production model. Results from descriptive analysis showed that 48.88 percent of the plantain farmers had secondary education and above. Majority of the respondents (66.67 percent) had between 5 and 8 members that made up the household in the study area. Findings further showed that majority of the respondents produced on small scale with average plantain farm size of 0.96 hectares. The farmers were fairly experienced with 44.44 percent of them had more than 15 years of farming experience. With mean profit of ₦251,500 per hectare and percentage profit of 63.11 percent, the venture was considered to be highly profitable. Farmers who invested ₦1 realized revenue of ₦0.63. The RTS parameter (0.931) was obtained from the summation of the coefficients of the estimated inputs (elasticities) which indicated that plantain production in the study area was in Stage II of the production surface meaning that these variables were efficiently utilized. Depreciation, hired labour, family labour, farm size and quantity of suckers planted were the significant variables that influence efficiency of the plantain farmers. Age, land acquisition and access to credit contributed significantly to technical inefficiency. Among the most prevalent constraints were; price fluctuation (72.22%), heavy wind (70.00%), high cost of farm input (68.89%), pests and diseases and pilferage (63.33%) each, insufficient credit facility, storage facility and poor agricultural extension services (62.22%) respectively.</p> Rufus Sunday Owoeye F. O. Osundare ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-01 2018-03-01 8 1 1203 1213 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7142 Corn (Zea mays L.) Response to Hybrid, Row Spacing, and Plant Populations in the Blacklands of Central Texas <p>Field studies were conducted during the 2013 and 2014 growing seasons in central Texas near Taylor (30.5326<sup>o</sup> N; 97.4548<sup>o </sup>W) to determine the effect of hybrid, row spacing, and plant populations on corn growth and yield.&nbsp; Two corn hybrids (BH 8844 and BH 8900) were compared at 53,000, 62,000, and 71,000 plants ha<sup>-1</sup> planted one row on a single bed or twin rows (spaced approximately 20 cm apart) on a single bed. Plant counts were taken 4 to 6 wk after planting while ear height measurements were taken approximately four wk prior to corn harvest. Crop yield was determined by harvesting all eight rows of each plot with a combine. Weights were adjusted to 12% moisture. Experimental design was a factorial arrangement using a randomized complete block design with corn hybrid (2), row spacing (2), and seeding rates (3) as factors.&nbsp; Data were analyzed using PROC GLM with SAS (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC) and treatment means separated by Fisher's protected least significant difference test at P = 0.05.&nbsp; Plant height was not affected by plant populations or row spacing as only hybrid response was significant with BH 8900 being taller in both years. Row spacing affected ear height in one of two years with the twin row spacing having a taller ear placement in the dryer year. No differences were seen with ear placement with respect to plant populations. In the dry year, yield of BH 8844 decreased as plant populations increased; however, no differences were noted with BH 8900.&nbsp; In the wet year, the inverse was seen with increased yield with higher populations with both hybrids. The twin row system increased BH 8900 yield in 2013. In 2014, with BH 8844, the single row system outyielded twin row and no differences noted with BH 8900.&nbsp; The results were quite variable and this was due in part to rainfall events in the two years.&nbsp; Plant and ear height was influenced by hybrid while yield response was somewhat affected by population and row spacing.&nbsp; A hybrid x row width response was noted indicating that certain hybrids will respond to row spacing more than others.</p> James Grichar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-22 2018-02-22 8 1 1214 1223 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7094 Boron induces seed germination and seedling growth of Hordeum vulgare L. under Nacl stress <p>Boron (B), an essential micronutrient, helps the plants to complete their life cycle successfully. Therefore, the present experiment was conducted to study (1) the role of B in seed germination and seedling growth, (2) the toxicity effect of B in seed germination and seedling growth and (3) the role of B in tolerance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. ‘Bakore’) to NaCl stress. Under NaCl stress and non-stress conditions, application of high levels of B (100 µM) decreased parameters of germination (G%, VI, GI and MGT), growth (RL, SL, RFW, SFW, RDW and SDW), except the accumulation of Pro and MDA in barley seedlings. Also, a fluorescence study reveals that production of ROS (H2O2 and O2 •—) and non-viable cells increased in roots of barley seedlings treated with NaCl and high dose of B. An alteration in anatomical structure of barley seedlings was observed with the application of NaCl and high dose of B. However, a low concentration of B (50 µM) proved best and increased all germination and growth traits of barley seedlings by increasing further accumulation of Pro. Also, 50 µM of B significantly increased the biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, b and total Chl) and deceased formation of ROS and viable cells in roots. Therefore, concluded that sufficient dose of B could be beneficial for barley plant in improving the tolerance to NaCl stress.</p> Saud A. Alamri Manzer H Siddiqui Mutahhar Y. Al-Khaishani Hayssam M. Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-01 2018-03-01 8 1 1224 1234 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7116 Modification of Topsoil Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Macroinvertebrates Structure Consecutive to the Conversion of Secondary Forests into Rubber Plantations in Grand-Lahou, Côte d’Ivoire <p>The objective of this investigation was to assess the modifications of topsoil physico-chemical characteristics and macroinvertebrates structure consecutive to the conversion of secondary forests into rubber plantations and how these change with the aging of the plantations and the season. The sampling design was constituted of four treatments: secondary forest referred to as baseline land use, 7-, 12- and 25 year old rubber plantations. Three replications per land use type were randomly established in each of the selected treatments, thus totaling 12 sampling areas. On each sampling area, a 40 m transect was established. The litter dwelling and topsoil (0-10 cm) macroinvertebrates were sampled, respectively, by using the pitfall traps and monoliths (50 cm × 50 cm × 10 cm) following the Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility method. The soil physical and chemical parameters were measured along the 40 m transect. The results showed that the conversion of secondary forest into plantations was characterized by a modification of the density of soil macroinvertebrates (dry season: -50 and -24% vs. rainy season: -61 and +32%), taxonomic richness of soil macroinvertebrates (dry season: +7 and -14% vs. rainy season: -21 and -14%), water content (dry season: -41 and -5% vs. rainy season: -62 and -31%), bulk density (dry season: +6 and -3% vs. rainy season: +33 and +29%), soil organic carbon (dry season: -73 and -59% vs. rainy season: -67 and -51%) and total nitrogen (dry season: -68 and -58% vs. rainy season: -64 and -52%), respectively, after about 7 and 25 years of conversion. The restoration processes did not cause significant changes in the soil physico-chemical and biological characteristics after 25 years of forests conversion. However, the study highlighted the improvement in the soil ecological quality due to a reduction in soil degradation, and an increase in the density of macroinvertebrates (+235%), taxono mic richness (+9%), water content (+84%), soil organic carbon (+50%) and total nitrogen (+33%) in the 25 year old plantations compared to the 7 year old plantations.</p> N'dri Kouadio Julien Kévin Kouadio N’Guessan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-13 2018-03-13 8 1 1235 1255 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7101 Marketing Margins for Imported and Local Rice in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria <p>The study was carried out in Akure, Ondo State. Multi stage and sampling technique procedure was used which involved purposive and random sampling methods in selecting the respondents with the aid of well-structured questionnaire with interview schedule. Descriptive statistical analysis, budgetary techniques, marketing margin analysis as well as Gini-coefficient and Herfindahl Hirshman Index was used for the analysis of variables. The result reviewed that more of the imported brands of rice in all the four market sampled than the local rice, with local rice margin as percentage of total marketing margin (16.95%) lower than that of local rice (17.78%) the average marketing efficiency of 349.91% and 467.89% were obtained from imported and local rice respectively while the Gini- coefficient (GC) Herfindahl Hirshman Index (HHI) values of 0.68 and 0.28 were obtained reviewing that rice marketing were highly concentrated with non-competitive practices showing disparity in earnings. The prevailing duration stocks were held in shops by trader was three to four weeks and the major sources of obtaining market information was mobile phone. The study recommends provision of storage facilities for the traders and also improvement in the quality of local rice with policy implementation that discourage importation of commodity as a way out of boosting and encouraging local rice production and its consumption.</p> Toluwase Sow Mo Sedowo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-23 2018-03-23 8 1 1256 1267 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7163 Nutritional Features of Biryani as The Basis for The Formation of An Entrepreneurial Mode in Biryani Market <p>Biryani is a traditional spice-flavored rice-based delicacy containing meat and vegetables. In this paper, the preparation of Biryani, its composition, nutritional value and entrepreneurial possibilities are discussed. The nutritional value per 100 g of product of different types of Biryani is given. A diagram of the cooking procedure of this dish is presented. The Biryani market is compared with the fast food market. Attention is also paid to the most important economic factors that influence the consumer's decision when buying food. These are: per capita income, price of the food relative to other products, as well as changes in the size and structure of the population. An additional advantage over the competition is outside the links between the restaurants and customers, business partners and suppliers. The purchase of this dish is most often associated with the processes of interacting with customers, with consumer safety, shaping their expectations, market information and customer behavior. This research suggests how establishing a modern Biryani market. Experimenting new variants of this dish and taking advantage of innovative digital solutions could be a strategy for promoting entrepreneurial development and even reducing youth unemployment.</p> Dr. Krishnan Umachandran Barbara Sawicka Noori Abdul-Nabi Nasir Antonella Pasqualone ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-24 2018-03-24 8 1 1268 1278 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7147 Evaluation of Endogenous Sugars, Chlorogenic Acid and Caffeine Associated with Direct Somatic Embryogenesis of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) <p>Coffee is one of the most important cash crops cultivated in the world with great economic importance. During the induction of somatic embryogenesis, there are different endogenous compounds involved in the success or failure of the somatic embryogenesis response and these compounds determine the specificity of cellular responses. This present experiment identified and quantified endogenous sugars, chlorogenic acid and caffeine present during somatic embryogenesis of ‘Ruiru 11’. Laboratory experiments were set up at Coffee Research Institute, Ruiru-Kenya between 2014 and 2016. Third leaf pair explants were excised from 8-monthold greenhouse-grown mother plants and cultured in half strength Murashige and Skoog basal salts augmented with Thidiazuron. Once embryos had developed, the cultures were analysed for endogenous sugars, caffeine and chlorogenic acid using HPLC. Generally, green embryogenic cultures contained more and higher quantities of the compounds. Glucose and fructose were highest (38.95 mg/g and 45.43 mg/g respectively) in leaf discs of brown non-embryogenic cultures. Sucrose was highest (62.15 mg/g) in embryos of green embryogenic cultures. Embryos of green embryogenic cultures had the highest chlorogenic acid (5.3 mg/g), whereas caffeine was highest (0.55 mg/g) in embryos of brown embryogenic cultures. Endogenous fructose and glucose inhibited embryogenesis, while sucrose, chlorogenic acids and caffeine promoted embryogenesis and are potential biomarkers for embryogenesis. Other biochemical compounds such as organic acids should be identified and their role in coffee somatic embryogenesis determined.</p> D. K. Isutsa R. N. Mayoli A. B. Nyende C. M. Mweu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-30 2018-05-30 8 1 1279 1292 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7376 Evaluation of Endogenous Phytocomponents and Amino Acids Associated with Direct Somatic Embryogenesis of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) <p>Coffee is one of the most important crops cultivated in the world for use in beverages and confectionaries. Embryogenesis is a complex process that begins with a single cell and ends with the formation of mature embryos. Somatic embryo development involves accumulation of complex metabolites and storage reserves. This present experiment identified and quantified endogenous phytocomponents and amino acids present during somatic embryogenesis of ‘Ruiru 11’. Laboratory experiments for this study were set up in the Coffee Research Institute, Kenya at Ruiru. Third leaf pair explants were excised from 8-month-old greenhouse-grown mother plants sterilized and cultured in half strength Murashige and Skoog basal salts augmented with Thidiazuron. Once embryos had developed, the cultures were analysed for phytocomponents using GCMS and HPLC. The results showed that palmitoleic and stearic acids were highest (23.3 µg/g and 69.9 µg/g respectively) in brown embryogenic cultures. Cis 7,8 epoxy-2-methyl octadecane was highest (253 µg/g) in green embryogenic cultures. (Z)-3-Tetradecene was highest (25 µg/g) in brown non-embryogenic cultures. Z, Z-3,13- Octadecedien-1-ol and (Z)-7-Hexadecenal were highest (32.1 µg/g and 70.2 µg/g respectively) in green embryogenic cultures. Alanine content was highest (4.4 µg/g) in embryos of brown cultures. Amino acids, fatty acids and their derivatives are potential biomarkers for embryogenesis. Other phytocomponents should be identified and their role in coffee somatic embryogenesis determined. Further studies regarding the status of the phytocomponents identified in the present study, especially in particular stages of embryo development are needed to propose treatments to improve coffee somatic embryo development.</p> D. K. Isutsa R. N. Mayoli A. B. Nyende C. M. Mweu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-30 2018-05-30 8 1 1293 1308 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7377 Relationships of Selected Endogenous Factors Associated with Direct Somatic Embryogenesis of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) <p>Coffee is one of the most important cash crops produced in the world with great economic returns to growers and national gross domestic product. Somatic embryogenesis is a morphogenetic processes leading to plantlet regeneration and these processes are coupled with changes in the levels of primary metabolites. The present experiment established relationships of endogenous substances with direct somatic embryogenesis of coffee ‘Ruiru 11’. Laboratory experiments were set up at Coffee Research Institute, Ruiru-Kenya between 2014 and 2017. The set up was in a completely randomised design, replicated three times and repeated once. Third leaf pair explants were excised from 8-month-old greenhouse-grown mother plants and cultured in half strength Murashige and Skoog basal salts augmented with Thidiazuron. Once embryos had developed, the cultures were analysed for endogenous substances using HPLC and GCMS. Sucrose, phenolics, alkaloids, amino acids, fatty acids and their derivatives correlated positively, whereas fructose and glucose correlated negatively with the other biochemical components. Endogenous sucrose, chlorogenic acid, caffeine amino acid, fatty acids and their derivatives are potential biomarkers for coffee somatic embryogenesis, whereas endogenous fructose and glucose are inhibitors of the same. Further studies regarding the status of the biochemical components, especially in particular stages of embryo development should be conducted to establish treatments that can improve coffee direct somatic embryo development.</p> D. K. Isutsa R. N. Mayoli A. B. Nyende C. M. Mweu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-01 2018-06-01 8 1 1309 1338 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7378 The Ethanol Dip and Vapor Delays Chilling Injury of Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L. cv. Ceylan), During Storage. <p>In this study, the effects of ethanol which is applied in different forms as liquid and vapor after harvest on chilling injury, color and overall quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Ceylan) during storage were examined. For the liquid ethanol treatments, cucumber fruits were immersed in water comprising different concentration of ethanol for 5 minutes. In order to apply ethanol in the form of steam, a pad was firstly impregnated with ethanol at different doses. This pad was placed in a polystyrene foam dishes, and after the cucumber fruit is placed on it, the dishes wrapped with stretch film. The doses for used the both ethanol treatment as: Controldip(CD), Controlvapor (CV), 200 µL/L, 400 µL/L , 800 µL/L and 1600 µL/L. It was concluded that the liquid ethanol treatment at the dose of 1600 µL/L was effectively delayed of chilling injury, softening and decay rate.</p> Rezzan Kasim Mehmet Ufuk Kasim Kubra Yasar Tugce Sahin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-01 2018-06-01 8 1 1339 1349 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7399 Defoliation and Pre-Harvest Drop of Camu-Camu Fruits in Floodable Area <p>The effect of defoliation and gibberellic acid (GA3) on the fall of the fruit in the induced period of harvest of Myrciaria dubia (camu-camu), in a flooded area on the banks of the Amazon River, Iquitos-Peru, was evaluated. The soil is clayey-silty with 2.15% organic matter, pH 6.29, 0.10% Nitrogen, 40.76 ppm Phosphorus and 228 ppm potassium. The average temperature is 27.45 ° C, relative humidity of 86% and 3111.4 mm of rain. The defoliation was carried out with NaCl solution in water (50 g.L-1). GA3, was applied every 15 days at doses of 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg.L.-1. The variables were evaluated: number of flowers per branch (FLR1-4), number of flowers per plant (FLP1-4),% of fruits retained in phase 3 (FR3),% of fruits retained in phase 5 (FR5), weight of fruits (PF), number of harvested fruits (FC), approximate yield of fruits (RAF), and the real fruit yield (RRF). The design was completely randomized (DCA), in 2x4 factorial arrangement. Defoliation significantly reduced FLP1-4 from 6938 to 3701, while GA3 did not influence that character. Defoliation significantly increased the FR3 retention, but reduced the PF and FC. GA3 significantly influenced FLR1-4, FR3 and PF. In FR5, no statistical difference was recorded for either D or GA3, nor was there significant interaction between the two defoliation and GA3 factors. For FC, RAF and RRF, highly significant differences were found for Defoliation, with superiority of non-defoliated plants but no differences were found for GA3 doses. It is concluded that in F3 the defoliation favored significantly, effect that was diluted in F5, while the application of GA3 negatively influenced this retention. Fruit yield was significantly higher in non-defoliated plants without showing significant difference between GA3 doses.</p> Mario Pinedo Panduro Carlos Zumba Lopez Elvis Paredes Davila Jose Ramirez Chung Carlos Abanto Rodriguez Jaime Durand Valencia Edvan Alves Chagas Dennis Del Castillo Torres ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-01 2018-07-01 8 1 1350 1373 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7432 Research on Tomato Nitrogen Content Nondestructive Testing Method Based on Multidimensional Image Processing Technology <p>This paper is aimed at greenhouse tomato nitrogen detection using hyperspectral imaging combined with three dimensional laser scanning technology. This technology extracts the nitrogen hyperspectral feature image and the plant three dimensional morphological characters, to achieve the rapid quantitative analysis of nitrogen in tomato. The characteristic spectrum of nitrogen was extracted, and the mean intensity characteristic of the image feature was obtained. Then based on the acquisition of the tomato hyperspectral image data cube at different nitrogen levels, the sensitive region stepwise regression combined with correlation analysis was performed. Based on the acquired three dimensional laser scanning data of tomatoes, the stem diameter, the plant height and other biomass characteristics of different nitrogen levels were obtained by establishing the spatial geometric model of tomato three dimensional point cloud. A multi-feature fusion model for tomato nitrogen detection was established by partial least square regression. The results showed that the R<sup>2</sup> in the constructed model was 0.94, with the accuracy significantly better than that of the single feature model established by using hyperspectral image and three dimensional laser scanning.</p> Xue Wei Zhang Xiao Dong Zhang Hanping Mao Hong Yan Gao Zi Yu Zuo Yu Qiang Ruan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-11 2018-07-11 8 1 1374 1383 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7469 Optimization of Purslane Plant Using Cooking and Pickling Processes for Reducing Oxalate Conten <p>Purslane (<em>Portulaca oleracea</em>) is an edible plant rich in benefcial nutrients. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the chemical composition, minerals, fatty acid analysis, phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity of purslane plant. In addition, the effect of cooking of purslane at different temperatures (60, 80 and 100 °C), for various durations (5, 10, 15 and 20 minute), and pickling for various durations (3, 6 and 9 days) on oxalate content. Sensory evaluation of quality characteristics and fatty acids analysis of biscuits fortified by purslane powder after reducing oxalate content were carried out. Protein, fat, ash and fiber contents of purslane were 5.64, 5.30, 23.42 and 16.03 %, respectively on dry matter basis. The highest concentration mineral was K (4694.0 mg/100g), while the lowest concentration mineral was Zn (0.93 mg/100g). Total phenolic and radical scavenging activity of purslane were 193.22 mg/100g gallic acid equivalent and 87.29 %, respectively. Purslane contains high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids, especially linolenic acid (40.4 % of total fatty acids). On the other hand, the soluble fraction of total oxalate content of purslane cooked for 20 minutes at 60, 80 and 100 °C were 34.65, 19.84 and 15.84 %, respectively. While, the soluble fraction of total oxalate content of purslane pickled for 0, 3, 6 and 9 days were 47.80, 36.23, 25.60 and 14.39 %, respectively. Fortification of biscuits using purslane powder after treatments led to improvement of the&nbsp;quality characteristics of product. <em>Portulaca oleracea</em> could be used as a good source of minerals, antioxidants and omega-3 especially for functional food and nutraceutical applications.</p> Waleed Z Badawy Salwa G Arafa Mihaly Czako ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-30 2018-07-30 8 1 1384 1398 10.24297/jaa.v8i1.7525