JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN AGRICULTURE JAA is scientific, open access, scholarly, peer-reviewed, fully referred international journal with DOI, ISSN, ICV and IF. CIRWORLD en-US JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN AGRICULTURE 2349-0837 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> <p>The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations. The submitting author is responsible for securing any permissions needed for the reuse of copyrighted materials included in the manuscript.</p> <p>While the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate on the date of its going to press, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.</p> EVALUATION OF SELECTED INSECTICIDES AGAINST WHITEFLY (Bemisia tabaci) ON BRINJAL CROPS AND THEIR EFFECT ON NATURAL ENEMIES <p>A field study was carried out for two cropping periods in the first season in year 2014 and the second season in 2015. This study was carried out at “share farm”, Agrotechnology Plantation UiTM Melaka, Campus Jasin to examine the efficacy of selected insecticides against whitefly (<em>Bemisia tabaci</em>) on brinjal crops and the effect on natural enemies (Spider) under field conditions. Five treatments with four replications were applied. The treatments were T0= Control (water), T1= Imidacloprid (Confidor), T2= Acetamiprid (Mospilan), T3= Dinotefuran (Oshin) and T4= Cyantraniliprole (Benevia). Pre-treatment and post-treatment observation were recorded which is one day before application and 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after application of insecticides. A total of two applications of treatments were done. The results revealed that Imidacloprid was recorded as the most effective and the highest reduction of whiteflies during the first season with 96.73%, followed by Acetamiprid (92.44%), Cyantraniliprole (82.65%) and Dinotefuran (80.74%) while during the second season, Imidacloprid also was recorded as the highest reduction with 79.99%, followed by Acetamiprid (76.34%), Cyantraniliprole (54.09%) and Dinotefuran (36.87%). Overall, chemical control of Imidacloprid was the most effective against whiteflies populations in brinjal particularly in the first season as compared to second season. The effect of these selected insecticides on natural enemies (Spider) revealed that chemical control of Imidacloprid gave the highest reduction of spider with 65.69%), followed by Cyantraniliprole (64.47%), Acetamiprid (41.44%) and Dinotefuran (15.45%). Imidacloprid and Cyantraniliprole were classified as moderately harmful to spider while Acetamiprid and Dinotefuran were classified as harmless or slightly harmful.</p> Mohd Rasdi Zaini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-16 2017-10-16 7 4 1151 1161 10.24297/jaa.v7i4.6356 Ethological control of Conotrachelus dubiae in camu-camu fruits [Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) H.B.K.] <p>The objective was to evaluate methods for the control of the weevil (<em>Conotrachelus dubiae</em>) of camu-camu (<em>Myrciaria dubia</em>) in a floodplain plot of a farmer near Iquitos, Loreto, Peru. Twenty-eight 6-year-old plants with similar architecture and branching were selected for the study. The treatments were: adhesive tape (T1), bottle with attractive food (T2), pegant yellow sheet (T3) and control (T4) with randomized complete block design (DBCA), 7 replicates and 1 plant per experimental unit. The total number of fruits (NTF), fruits attacked by weevil (FAG), fallen fruits (FC), fruits weight (PF) and fruit yield (RF) were evaluated. Significant differences were found between treatments for NTF, FAG and FC, and no differences were found for PF. The NTF for T1, T2, T3 and T4 were: 353, 280, 143 and 125 respectively. The highest RF values corresponded to T1 (3.03 kg / pl) and T2 (2.78 kg / pl). T1 caused the lowest values of&nbsp; FC(16%) and&nbsp; FAG (22.73%). Negative correlations were found between RF versus FAG (r = -0.57) and FC (-0.73). We conclude that the most effective control against&nbsp; <em>C. dubiae</em> is the application of the trap with adhesive tapes.</p> Mario Pinedo Panduro Ricardo bardales-lozano joel vasquez-bardales Elvis Paredes-davila Carlos Abanto-rodriguez Jaime Durand-valencia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-16 2017-10-16 7 4 1162 1170 10.24297/jaa.v7i4.6347 SOCIO- AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF RURAL - URBAN BALANCE IN IRAN <p>The article assesses how socio-agricultural development will sustain as a result of a balanced scale of rural-urban equality. However, increasing migration from rural to urban areas highly affects productivity and the infrastructure of the productivity in urban sectors. The process of modernization is highly responsible for the change, and a motivator for rural-urban migration not only in Iran, but in China, India and many other developing countries. The emerging scenario is contributing to increasing issues. The article concludes that rural and urban, or so to say, agriculture and industry benefit each other. The paper reaches the point that rural-urban balance optimistically leads to socio-economic development and sustainable growth. On the other hand, increasing and unbridled urbanization leads to declining raw materials needed for industrial development and urban productivity. The article reflects the merits, demerits and the challenges of the current transformation.</p> Dr. Mohammad Taghi Sheykhi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-07 2017-11-07 7 4 1171 1177 10.24297/jaa.v7i4.6424 EFFECTS OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES USED IN SOYBEAN SEED TREATMENT ON OIL, PROTEIN AND FIBRE CONTENT OF HARVESTED SEEDS <p>In 4-year trials, soybean seeds were treated with biologically active substances: Lignohumate B (a mixture of humic acids and fulvic acids), Lexin (a mixture of humic acids and fulvic acids enriched with auxins), brassinosteroid (a synthetic analog of natural epibrassinolide 24) and so-called “Complex seed treatment” (a mixture of a saturated solution of sucrose, Lexin, the fungicide Maxim XL 035 FS and adjuvant on the base of pinolene). After harvesting soybean seeds from the individual variants, they were analyzed for oil, protein and fibre contents. The results show that the most effective method was “Complex seed treatment” which, compared to the untreated variant, significantly increased not only the yield but also the oil content of the seeds.</p> Pavel Procházka Přemysl ŠTRANC Kateřina PAZDERŮ Jaroslav ŠTRANC Jan VOSTŘEL ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-07 2017-11-07 7 4 1178 1184 10.24297/jaa.v7i4.6410 GENOTYPE AND TIME OF INOCULATION EFFECTS ON DON PER GRAIN AND GRAIN WEIGHT OF WINTER WHEAT UNDER TWO ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS <p>Experiment was conducted using near isogenic lines of Mercia background in a controlled environment to evaluate the mean effect of timing of inoculation and subsequent increase in temperature on deoxynivalenol (DON) concentration, amount of DON per grain and grain weight. The experiment was completely randomised consisting of three genotypes differing in semi-dwarfing alleles; Mercia 0 {Rht-B1a + Rht-D1a (wild type)}, Mercia 1 (Rht-B1b) and Mercia 2 (Rht-D1b) and four inoculation timings. The experiment was a complete factorial combination with four randomised replicates. Data showed that genotype differed in DON concentration (P&lt;0.001), DON per grain (P=0.006) and mean grain weight (P=0.001) while time of inoculation influenced mean grain weight (P&lt;0.001) and DON Concentration (P&lt;0.001) but not Don per grain (P=0.23). Temperature influenced mean grain weight (P=0.002) with high temperature adversely affecting the size of the wheat grains.</p> Victor Chijioke Okereke ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-11-17 2017-11-17 7 4 1185 1188 10.24297/jaa.v7i4.6358 Comparison Of Empirical Models For Estimating The Mineralization Potential Of Soil Nitrogen <p>Modeling is an attempt to describe a natural event mathematically. &nbsp;The modeling of N mineralization process has a dual interest, agronomical and ecological.&nbsp; The objective of this study is to evaluate several mathematical models to describe the nitrogen mineralization process of soil samples. These samples were collected from 34 sites spatially distributed in the semi-arid region of <em>El-Madher</em> (<em>the Aures area, north-east of Algeria</em>). Using an auger, the systematic surveys have been carried out and composite samples of soils were collected in the field, and subjected to physical and chemical analyzes. In order to track the kinetic organic nitrogen mineralization, similar samples were collected and taken into cool boxes have been incubated in laboratory, sieved (2 mm) and stored at 4°C before use and then incubated at 28°C for 56 weeks. To facilate comparison, all results have been statistically analyzed, by <em>nonlinear regression</em> and <em>analysis of variance </em>method. Four empirical models were tested to fitt the value found experimentally. The linear kinetics model Nm=k t – Ni, the single first-order kinetics model <em>(MI)</em> Nm = Ni e<sup>-kt</sup> + No (1 - e<sup>-kt</sup>), the double first-order and the exponential kinetics model <em>(MII)</em> Nm=Ni e<sup>-kt</sup> + No (1 - e<sup>-kt</sup>) + e<sup>-ht</sup> and the hyperbolic kinetics model <em>(MH)</em> Nm=N<sup>o</sup><sub>H</sub>.t/(Tc+t) – Ni were used to simulate the cumulative mineralized N (NH4+-N and NO3- -N) in the laboratory incubation. In order to test the performance and robustness of the different models three goodness of fit (coefficient of determination R<sup>2</sup>, Root Mean Square RMS and Mean Relative Error RMSE) were used. Moreover, the parameters obtained by the different models determined the predictions of nitrogen mineralization. The&nbsp;best&nbsp;results were obtained using the double first-order and exponential kinetics model. The results showed no significant difference between nitrogen mineralized for 56 weeks and nitrogen predicted by various models. However, the N predicted by the <em>MII </em>appears to be the best compared to other models. Indeed, the overestimation of nitrogen potentially mineralizable (N<sub>0</sub>) obtained by this model was relatively lower than other models. This has been confirmed by the study of multiple correlations between net mineral nitrogen and nitrogen predicted by each model. Thus, the results obtained showed a strong positive correlation between mineralized nitrogen values and those of nitrogen predicted by the different models. The correlation coefficients values indicate the folowing order MII (r = 0.878)&gt; MI (r = 0.748)&gt; MH (r = 0.709). The MII model has, therefore, highlighted that two pools of organic matter that mineralize simultaneously were detected in soil. One pool is stable and the other one is labile. One pool evolves with first-order kinetics and the other with exponential kinetics.</p> Zoubeir bensid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-19 2017-12-19 7 4 1189 1202 10.24297/jaa.v7i4.6485