JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN AGRICULTURE 2019-06-20T04:16:00+00:00 Gurpal Kaur Open Journal Systems Interested in submitting to this journal? We recommend that you review the About the Journal page for the journal's section policies, as well as the Author Guidelines. Authors need to register with the journal prior to submitting or, if already registered, can simply log in and begin the five-step process. Impact of Biochar and Different Nitrogen Sources on Forage Radish Production in Middle Tennessee 2019-02-28T11:19:38+00:00 Todd Pirtle Lee Rumble Michael Klug Forbes Walker Song Cui Nathan Phillips <p>Short-season forage radish (<em>Raphanus sativus</em> L. var. longipinnatus) has recently gained great popularity in Middle Tennessee and many parts of the world used as a high-quality vegetable crop for human consumption or a forage crop for winter grazing and cover cropping. In this study, we (i) estimated soil pH buffering capacity and microbial activity, (ii) quantified crop productivity influenced by different biochar amendment rates and N fertilizer management practices based on a factorial treatment design. Particularly, biochar was amended at rates of 0, 5, 20, and 40 Mg/ha; N fertilizer was applied at zero (N0), 122 kg/ha of urea (56 kg/ha of N; N1) and 4.8 Mg/ha of aged dairy cattle manure (56-60 kg/ha of N), providing a total of 12 treatments (four biochar rates × three fertilization practices). The combination of biochar and inorganic N fertilizer such as urea appeared to have positive impacts on the short-term biomass production, soil pH buffering capacity, and enhanced soil microbial activity for short-season forage radish production (<em>P</em> &lt; 0.05). Future research is warranted to evaluate the use of biochar in field-based forage/vegetable studies in Tennessee.</p> 2019-01-31T04:58:52+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Asexual Propagation of Four Medicinal Greek Endemic Plants of Lamiaceae Family With Conservation Priority From The Collection of The Balkan Botanic Garden of Kroussia, N. Greece 2019-02-28T11:19:37+00:00 Virginia Sarropoulou Eleni Maloupa <p>Conservation of endemic rare-threatened plants and sustainable exploitation of biodiversity with emphasis on medicinal-aromatic plants and plants with horticultural/ornamental value can be achieved through ex situ conservation activities. For this purpose, propagation experiments with cuttings were performed on four local Ionian endemic species with conservation priority, <em>Stachys ionica </em>Halácsy, <em>Teucrium halascyanum</em>, <em>Thymus holosericeus C</em>elak and <em>Thymus plasonii </em>Adamovic (all Lamiaceae). For propagation, softwood tip cuttings (3-5 cm) were cut at early autumn from mother plants collected from the wild and maintained in open-air mother plantations. For experimentation, the base of cuttings was immersed for 1 min in solutions of four concentrations of IBA (0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 ppm). Cuttings were placed on a peat:perlite (1:3) substrate in the bench of greenhouse heated mist system. Most suitable treatment for <em>T. halascyanum</em> (3 ½ weeks) proved to be 1000 ppm IBA (32.13 roots 1.72 cm long, 100% rooting). Accordingly, 2000 ppm IBA gave 100% rooting for both <em>S. ionica</em> (28.5 roots 1.56 cm long,) (3 weeks) and <em>Th. holosericeus</em> (4.4 roots 1.76 cm long) (7 weeks). <em>T. plasonii</em> cuttings treated with 2000 ppm IBA gave 85.71% optimum rooting with 8.67 roots 1.78 cm long.</p> 2019-01-31T04:59:06+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Increasing Eggs Protein Level and Eggshell Integrality Performed by Addition of Xylanase, Amylase, Protease (Avizyme® 1502) in Layers Feed 2019-03-01T07:07:35+00:00 Hamong Suharsono Ida Bagus Putu Semara Putra Ida Bagus Komang Ardana I Wayan Nico Fajar Gunawan Putu Henrywaesa Sudipa Kadek Karang Agustina <p>The high number of broken eggshells on laying hens in Indonesia is very detrimental to farmers, so that needs to be overcome. A total of 480 Lohman chickens with 40 weeks of age were divided into 4 treatment groups with the addition of different doses of Avizyme® 1502 respectively P0 as a control that got 0 g/Kg of feed, P1 got 1 g/Kg of feed, P2 got 2 g/Kg of feed, P3 got 3 g/Kg of feed. Avizyme® 1502 contains enzymes xylanase, amylase, and protease. This treatment was given daily for 30 days. The sampling of eggshell checking was recorded when start of administering enzymes to the end of the administration and at the end of the study, 6 eggs from each treatment were taken randomly to measure the protein level. The results showed that the addition of 1 g/Kg of Avizyme® 1502 on feed provided the highest protein level in eggs. During the research period, eggs produced by the groups of chicken under treatments of Avizyme 1502® showed a decrease in cracked eggshell.</p> 2019-02-28T10:24:30+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impatiens ‘New Guinea’ (Impatiens hawkeri Bull) Hormonal Effects during the Post-transplant Biomass Accumulation 2019-02-28T11:20:40+00:00 Adalberto Di Benedetto Jorge Molinari Pablo Fujinuma Alberto Pagani Marcela Buyatti Ernesto Giardina <p>Pot ornamental plant productivity is related to the environmental growth facilities but negatively affected by the pot root restriction syndrome so during nursery as the post-transplant stage. The physiological mechanism involved included both the synthesis and translocation of auxins and cytokinins. However, clear sink-source and dose-response relationships of exogenous plant regulators such as indole acetic acid (AIA) and benzyl amino purine (BAP) and environment on biomass accumulation in most ornamental foliage plants, including New Guinea <em>Impatiens </em>(<em>Impatiens hawkeri</em>) are lacking. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of an exogenously shoot-applied auxin and a cytokinin, separately or successively, on the post-transplant biomass accumulation of <em>I. hawkeri </em>through the anatomical, morphological and physiological changes observed. Two experiments were performed. The first experiment included the response to only BAP-sprayed plants (0, 5, 50, or 100 mg L<sup>-1</sup>). For the second experiment, rooting cuttings of <em>I. hawkeri </em>were sprayed with different concentrations of IAA (0, 5, 50, or 100 mg L<sup>-1</sup>) followed by different BAP concentrations (0, 5, 50, or 100 mg L<sup>-1</sup>) one week later to run-off at sunset. Results showed that (a) a single BAP or AIA dose increased increase post-transplant biomass accumulation through a higher leaf area expansion and photo assimilate production, (b) as a result of both AIA and BAP spray, the higher NAR the higher post-transplant biomass accumulation, (c) leaf anatomical changes (leaf thickness, intercellular spaces) let a higher carbon dioxide diffusion and fixation with a correlative increase in photo assimilates, (d) a higher root system would be related to a higher cytokinin synthesis. In summary, similarities between responses to either hormone, together with the lack of any IAA - BAP interaction, provide two independent routes for commercial growers to increase the productivity of <em>I. hawkeri </em>ornamental plants by using early foliar sprays.</p> 2019-02-28T10:24:37+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Jatropha curcas: an overview 2019-02-28T11:20:40+00:00 Waleed Abobatta <p><em>Jatropha curcas L</em>. belongs to family <em>Euphorbiaceae</em>, <em>Jatropha curcas</em> is a valuable multi-purpose crop, historically it was used as medicine for wounds and leaves used as drinks against malaria, jatropha plants used to control soil degradation, alleviate erosion, desertification and increase soil fertility, however, in last decades there is more attention to use jatropha oil for produce biodiesel, &nbsp;<em>Jatropha </em><em>curcas </em>is easily propagated by seeds or stem cutting, it is tolerant for drought for longtime, it is grow well with treated wastewater, also, it can be grown on marginal land. <em>Jatropha curcas</em> seed have about 32-40% valuable oil used to produce biofuel, therefore, it could be the source for biodiesel production particularly in arid and semiarid regions.</p> 2019-02-28T10:24:47+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Heavy metals concentrations in bee products collected from contaminated and non-contaminated areas from Upper Egypt Governorates 2019-02-28T11:20:40+00:00 Abd El-Aleem Saad Desoky N. S. Omran M.O. M. Omar M. H. Hussein M. M. Abd-Allah <p>Twenty fresh clover honey, ten beeswax and ten bee bread samples represented&nbsp;contaminated and non-contaminated areas were collected directly from the apiaries&nbsp;during 2015 .The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of toxic metals ( Lead&nbsp;(Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn)) in honey, beeswax and&nbsp;bee bread stored inside honey bee colonies. The highest lead contents (0.5488 mg/kg)&nbsp;was estimated in honey samples collected from industrialized area The lowest Pb&nbsp;content were estimated in honey samples collected from rural area (0.5096 mg/kg).<br>The lowest Cd concentration (0.0961 mg/kg). However, the highest content of Cd&nbsp;(0.1042 mg/kg) was recorded in honey samples collected from urbanized areas. High&nbsp;concentration of (Cu) was estimated in honey samples collected from apiaries located&nbsp;in industrialized area (0.0757 mg/kg) while the lowest were recorded in rural area&nbsp;(0.0432 mg/kg) . Zn occurred in low concentration in honey samples The highest&nbsp;value was recorded in honey samples from rural area (0.241) mg/kg and the lowest in&nbsp;honey samples from apiaries located in Reclaimed soils (0.185) mg/kg. Heavy metal<br>concentrations of Pb, Cd, Fe, Cu and Zn in beeswax samples collected from&nbsp;contaminated and non-contaminated areas were 1.388, 0.194, 16.696, 0.619 and 4.606&nbsp;mg/kg. While the averages of heavy metal concentrations in non contaminated area&nbsp;decreased to 1.175; 0.160; 15.466; 0.391 and 2.520 mg/kg, respectively.&nbsp;Contamination in bee bread samples showed that lead concentration (1.094 mg/kg to&nbsp;1.338 mg/kg) was detected in bee bread samples collected from honey bee colonies&nbsp;located in non-contaminated areas and samples collected from( industrialized and&nbsp;urban areas).</p> 2019-02-28T10:24:54+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Rodent Control Strategies in Hospitals 2019-03-29T05:56:00+00:00 Abd El-Aleem Saad Desoky <p>An infestation of rodents in a healthcare facility is especially dangerous because these&nbsp;pests can carry disease and spoil food with the&nbsp;bacteria&nbsp;and&nbsp;viruses&nbsp;they harbor in&nbsp;their saliva and droppings. Exposure to dangerous pathogens could be disastrous for&nbsp;already health-compromised patients.&nbsp;The aim of the study is to implement an integrated control program for rodents inside&nbsp;hospitals and to clarify the most important preventive methods that can be used in the&nbsp;control process and to make some important observations in the application of&nbsp;methods of integrated control of rodents to obtain the best program for rodent control&nbsp;in hospitals.</p> 2019-03-28T06:18:55+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Micropropagation and Conservation of Fig (Ficus Carica L.) 2019-03-29T05:56:00+00:00 Mohamad Shatnawi Rida A. Shibli Wesam G. Shahrour Tamara S. Al-Qudah Abu-Zahra Taleb <p>An efficient protocol is outlined for rapid and mass micropropagation of <em>Ficus carica</em> L. (fig). Shoot tips (5 mm) were obtained from mother plants stock grown on half strength Murashige and Skoog (½ MS) medium with the addition of 30 g/L sucrose. For shoot multiplication Benzyl amino purine (BAP) and kinetin produced differences number of new shoot per plant and shoot height. BAP at 0.4 mg/L in combination with 0.2 mg/L indole-3-butyric-acid (IBA) produce maximum <em>in vitro </em>propagation rate, with 4.2 shoots per ex-plant. Root initiation was experimented on MS medium containing different concentrations of mg/L, IBA, IAA (Indole-3-acetic-acid) (IAA) or Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Highest number of root (4.3) was resulted when 1.5 mg/L IBA was used. After acclimatization in a mixture of (1 soil: 1 perlite: 1 peat) survival rate of 80% was achieved. For <em>in vitro</em> conservation of <em>F. carica</em> was experimented as microshoots were stored for 40 weeks on MS medium containing different sucrose concentration. Medium supplemented with 3% sucrose gave the highest regrowth (89%) at 24 ± 2 °C. Culture grew slowly when transferred to new fresh medium after the storage periods.</p> 2019-03-28T06:19:02+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Soil Physical Properties Enhancement Via Native Tree Species in Northern Ethiopia 2019-03-29T07:18:02+00:00 Kassaye Gurebiyaw Legese Abay Gelanew Melese Alemu <p>Dozens of chemical fertilizer is produced in factors to maintain and reclaim soil fertility, but the reliance on artificial fertilizer alone is not advisable due to environmental pollution. . Thus, indigenous plant species can maintain soil fertility without any extra cost. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of indigenous tree species on soil physical properties. Three dominant indigenous trees species (Croton macrostachuys, Cordia Africana and Albizia gummifera) were considered.&nbsp; Soil samples were taken from different sampling points under crown of these tree species (mid of crown and edge of crown). One sampling point is included by far 30m from the selected tree as a control group. Soil sample was taken by using core sampler. Soil physical properties such as texture, structure, porosity, bulk density and moisture content were analyzed. Bulk density was determined as 0.73g/cm<sup>3</sup>, 0.75g/cm<sup>3</sup> and 0.8g/cm<sup>3</sup> for Albizzia gummifera, Croton macrostachuys and Cordia Africana respectively. Bulk density was very small under crown of all trees as influenced by the amount of organic matter falling from trees leaf. The texture under crown of all tree species (silty loam, loam and loamy sand) is quite better for agriculture purpose than control point. Soil color under crown is in the range of brown to black color, which indicates high fertility level. Soil porosity was very high under the crown of all tree species as compared to the control site. It is determined as 72.5%, 71.6%, and 69.7% for Albizzia gummifera, Croton macrostachuys and Cordia Africana respectively. Soil consistence, porosity and moisture content were better under crown of the trees than control group. Soil properties under the crown of indigenous tree species were better than bare land soils.&nbsp; Therefore, indigenous trees are promising option to maintain soil fertility level and land owners ought to be aware of this miracle.</p> 2019-03-29T06:40:52+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Micronutrients on The Two Qatari Date Palm Cultivars Shishi and Lulu Through in Vitro Technic 2019-04-03T11:35:00+00:00 Sara Aqeel Rehab A. Sidky <p>Plant tissue responds to nutrient media due to the plant cultivars genetic diversity. The objective of this research is to determine the effects of micronutrients on date palm growth and which of these micronutrients are critical for improving growth combined with Paclobutrazol or without on <em>in vitro</em> of elongation stage. <em>In vitro</em> growth of two cultivars were determined by varying five treatments that included minor salts (EDTA-chelated iron, CuSo<sub>4,</sub>) alone or combined with Paclobutrazol. The effects of these five treatments on plantlet length, trunk thickness, rooting number and Chlorophyll A, B was investigated. The results obtained after three months showed that, increasing copper sulphate on MS elongation media combined with Paclobutrazol was more effective for increasing the trunk thickness as well as rooting number compared with normal MS level. While poor response was found when Fe was increased in the chelated form of Fe-EDTA on MS elongation media.&nbsp; For cultivars, Shishi gave the highest plantlets length as well as root number. The maximum content of chlorophylls A and B were observed when copper sulphate was increased on MS elongation media with cultivar Lulu. The survival rate after 3 months was related to the medium used during the elongation phase, the survival of plantlets reached to 98.66% with cultivar lulu at the acclimatization stage.</p> 2019-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Inoculation of Potato Pulp with Antibacterial Lactic Acid Bacterium To Improve The Quality of Livestock Feed 2019-04-05T05:49:28+00:00 Ayiguli Dagaerbieke Oyundelger Ganzorig Kensuke Miyazaki Takashi Yoshida <p>Potato pulp was inoculated either with the antibacterial lactic acid bacteria <em>Lactococcus lactis</em> and <em>L</em><em>.</em> <em>diolivorans</em> and the inoculated potato pulp was ensiled under anaerobic conditions for 30 d at room temperature in a mini-silo. We have previously reported that <em>L</em>. <em>diolivorans</em> produces antimicrobial peptides with potent antibacterial activity; therefore, the bacterium is expected to increase the fermentation quality of the potato pulp. The quality of the potato pulp silage was evaluated. The moisture content of the potato pulp silage was remained 822 g/kg before and after ensiling. The protein content in the silage increased from an initial concentration of 39 to 57 g/kg and 58 g/kg for <em>L. lactis</em> and <em>L</em><em>. </em><em>diolivorans</em> inoculations, respectively. The lactic acid content significantly increased from 2 to 52 g/kg (<em>L. lactis</em>) and 50 g/kg (<em>L. </em><em>diolivorans</em>) after ensiling, whereas, toxic butyric acid was not detected with either treatment. These results suggest that the inoculation of potato pulp with <em>L. lactis</em> or <em>L. </em><em>diolivorans</em> increases the quality and nutrition of potato pulp as silage. In particular,<em> L</em>. <em>diolivorans</em> is an efficient inoculant because it produces antibacterial peptides that prevent the increase of saprophyte in silage.</p> 2019-04-05T05:44:38+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Study on Mechanical Law of Vibration Abscission of Camellia Oleifera Fruit Based on High-Speed Camera Technology 2019-05-01T08:10:12+00:00 Yang Cheng Wang Qi <p>The movement and mechanical characteristics of oil-tea camellia fruit coupling with flower simultaneously during the harvest period were studied to provide an indispensable theoretical guideline for the mechanized picking machine. The mechanical properties of Camellia oleifera were obtained by investigating its flowers and fruits, and the vibration harvesting of Camellia oleifera was studied by using dynamic vibration device. The i-Speed3 high-speed camera was used to record the harvesting process, and the image analysis and calculation were carried out by its own Control-Pro software. The results showed that different varieties of Camellia oleifera had different flowering periods, ranging from 30 to 55 days; their weight also varied among varieties; there was no inevitable relationship between the binding force (pulling force and torque) of fruit stalks and their varieties, locations and diameter of fruit stalks. More importantly, during the vibration process, the fruit peeling speed is related to the vibration source clamping position and vibration parameters. Under the condition of short clamping distance and high frequency and low amplitude, the fruit is more likely to fall off.</p> 2019-04-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Field Trials Indicating the Potential of Abutilon Theophrasti (Medic.) As A New Fibre Crop in Southwest Germany 2019-05-04T05:43:11+00:00 Maria Scheliga Urs Brand Oliver Türk Sabine Gruber Jan Petersen <p>Natural fibre based composites are being used more frequently in the automotive industry because of their positive characteristics. Fibres currently used and mostly imported to Europe do not sufficiently meet all the demands for natural fibres. As a new fibre plant velvetleaf (<em>Abutilon theophrasti)</em> has been taken into consideration. However, there is no knowledge about the cultivation of velvetleaf in Europe.</p> <p>Four field trials in southwest Germany were set up to investigate the potential of fibre yield in a temperate climate. The factors crop density, nitrogen fertilization, accessions, and different harvesting dates were tested.</p> <p>Across all experiments fibre yield ranged from 0.4 to 1.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> dry matter. The highest yields were achieved with a crop density of 30 plants m<sup>-2</sup>, and with N fertilization of 100-150 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> for the accession ‘Herbiseed’. For highest fibre yield, the date of harvest should be at the beginning of maturity.</p> <p>This study provides first insights into possibility and variation of cultivating velvetleaf and suggests adequate fibre yield when cultivated in proper plant density and appropriate accession. However, before the plant can be implemented as a new crop, more research on fibre quality and breeding activity to improve agronomic factors is required.</p> 2019-05-04T05:27:13+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Performance Evaluation of Red Pepper Varieties and Types of Seed Bed for The Management of Root Rot (Phytophtora Capsici) Disease at Central Gondar, Northwest, Ethiopia. 2019-05-04T05:43:11+00:00 Yigerm Mengist Abebe Birara <p>Root rot caused by Phytophtora capsici is one of the most important root diseases of pepper. The experiment was conducted at Denbiya and Takusa district with aimed to evaluate effective red pepper varieties and types of seed bed against root rot disease. Five red pepper varieties namely Melka Dera, Melka Oli, Melka Zala, Marco Fana, local; and two seed bed types namely flat and raised bed were used as treatments. Treatments were arranged in a factorial combination in RCBD with three replication.&nbsp; Result showed that the minimum incidence and severity of 28.13 % and 19.8%, respectively was recorded from Melka Oli variety transplanted in a raised bed while the maximum incidence and a severity of 51.03% and 42.8%, respectively were recorded from local red pepper in flat seed bed. The maximum grain yield of 28.81 q/ha and insignificance yield losses were recorded from Melka Oli in raised beds while the minimum grain yield and maximum yield losses 11.12q/ha and 61.44%, respectively were recorded from local red pepper in flat seed bed. Therefore, results suggested that the use of Melka Oli variety transplanted at raised seed bed is promising for significant reduction in root rot incidence and a corresponding increase in yield of red pepper.</p> 2019-05-04T05:37:07+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Stimulating Effects of Imazalil and Carbendazim Fungicides on in Vitro Propagation and ex Situ conservation of the Medicinal Balkan Range-Restricted Sideritis Raeseri Boiss & Heldr. Subsp. Raeseri 2019-05-30T09:45:26+00:00 Virginia Sarropoulou Eleni Maloupa <p><em>Sideritis raeseri </em>Boiss &amp; Heldr. subsp. <em>raeseri</em>, known in Greece as Mountain tea of Parnassus or Velouchi is a range restricted medicinal plant of the Balkan peninsula. Conventional propagation methods did not allow the mass production of plant material in a short period of time due to both low seed germination rate and rooting of cuttings. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish a reliable, reproducible and efficient regeneration protocol for mass and large-scale micropropagation, germplasm and <em>ex situ </em>conservation<em> of S. raeseri</em> Boiss &amp; Heldr. using Imazalil and Carbendazim fungicides. After 9 weeks, 2.5-10 mg/l Imazalil stimulated root length by 1 cm but diminished root number and rooting percentage. Optimum shoot number (5.58), shoot length (24.91 mm), shoot multiplication (100%), root number (20.63) and rooting (66.67%) were recorded with 0.5 mg/l kinetin (KN) + 0.05 mg/l ?-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) (Imazalil-free). After 4 ½ weeks, 1 mg/l Carbendazim + 0.5 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BA) yielded 5.77 shoots/explant, 16.1 mm shoot length and 100% shoot multiplication. However, Carbendazim did not result in rooting. The <em>ex vitro </em>survival percentage of rooted shoot-tip explants derived from Imazalil experiment was 95%. Carbendazim proved useful in shoot proliferarion and Imazalil in root elongation of <em>S. raeseri</em> Boiss &amp; Heldr. subsp. <em>raeseri</em> micropropagation system.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2019-05-30T06:10:34+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Distribution, Impacts and Management Option for Water Hyacinth (Eichhnornia Crassipes [Mart.] Solms) in Ethiopia: A Review 2019-06-20T04:16:00+00:00 Yigerm Mengist Yohannes Moges <p>Water hyacinth (<em>Eichhprnia crassipes</em>) is the most dangerous and worst invasive aquatic weed in the worldwide including Ethiopia, and negatively affecting millions of water resources, fisheries, transportation and social structure. Water hyacinth was introduced in the water bodies of the Rift Valley in 68years ago and currently, the weed is distributed Lake Tana, Lake Abaya, Lake Koka, Koka Dam. The wide distribution and abundance of water hyacinth has led to decreased water availability and sustainable water biodiversity in Ethiopian lakes. However, the spread of water hyacinth is threatening not only water biodiversity but also socioeconomic development and human wellbeing. Water hyacinth in water bodies and nearby areas the local stakeholder has its negative impact on environmental problem and it’s influenced aquatics biodiversity. This review paper aimed to investigate the distribution, impacts and its integrated management option against water hyacinth in Ethiopia. Therefore, based on the review it can be concluded that human intervention is considered as the current problem of water resource in the country and further study is needed to sustain the water resource are needed to keep water hyacinth at unproblematic levels.</p> 2019-06-20T04:15:59+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##