The Stimulating Effects of Imazalil and Carbendazim Fungicides on in Vitro Propagation and ex Situ conservation of the Medicinal Balkan Range-Restricted Sideritis Raeseri Boiss & Heldr. Subsp. Raeseri
Sideritis raeseri Boiss & Heldr. subsp. raeseri, known in Greece as Mountain tea of Parnassus or Velouchi is a range restricted medicinal plant of the Balkan peninsula. Conventional propagation methods did not allow the mass production of plant material in a short period of time due to both low seed germination rate and rooting of cuttings. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish a reliable, reproducible and efficient regeneration protocol for mass and large-scale micropropagation, germplasm and ex situ conservation of S. raeseri Boiss & Heldr. using Imazalil and Carbendazim fungicides. After 9 weeks, 2.5-10 mg/l Imazalil stimulated root length by 1 cm but diminished root number and rooting percentage. Optimum shoot number (5.58), shoot length (24.91 mm), shoot multiplication (100%), root number (20.63) and rooting (66.67%) were recorded with 0.5 mg/l kinetin (KN) + 0.05 mg/l ?-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA) (Imazalil-free). After 4 ½ weeks, 1 mg/l Carbendazim + 0.5 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BA) yielded 5.77 shoots/explant, 16.1 mm shoot length and 100% shoot multiplication. However, Carbendazim did not result in rooting. The ex vitro survival percentage of rooted shoot-tip explants derived from Imazalil experiment was 95%. Carbendazim proved useful in shoot proliferarion and Imazalil in root elongation of S. raeseri Boiss & Heldr. subsp. raeseri micropropagation system.
Barber JC, Francisco-Ortega J, Santos-Guerra A, Turner KG, Hansen RK. Origin of Macaronesian Sideritis L. (Lamioideae, Lamiaceae) inferred from nuclear and chloroplast sequence datasets. Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 2002; 23: 293-306.
Strid A, Tan T. Mountain flora of Greece. Vol. 2. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1991; 974.
Goliaris A. Cultivation of the mountain tea. Ministry of Agriculture-Agrotica, 1984; 16: 29-31.
Aboutabl E, Nassar M, Elsakhawy F, Maklad Y, Osman A, El-Khrisy E. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on Sideritis taurica Stephan ex Wild. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 82: 177-184.
Gabrieli C, Kefalas P, Kokkalou E. Antioxidant activity of flavonoids from Sideritis raeseri. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 96: 423-428.
Werbrouck SPO, Dhuyvetter H, Pérez RM, Topoonyanont N, Debergh PC. Plant propagation in vitro: hormonal interactions. Acta Hortic. 2001; 560: 377-381.
Werbrouck SPO, Debergh PC. Imazalil enhances the shoot inducing effect of benzyladenine in Spathiphyllum floribundum Schott. J. Plant Growth Regul. 1995; 14: 105-107.
Werbrouck SPO, Debergh PC. Imadizole fungicides and paclobutrazol enhance cytokinin-induced adventitious shoot proliferation in Araceae. J. Plant Growth Regul. 1996; 15: 81-85.
Delp CJ. Benzimidazole and related fungicides. In Modern selective fungicides, 2nd edn, Lyr H. (ed), Jena: Gustav Fisher Verlag, 1987; 291-303.
Tripathi RK, Ram S. Induction of growth and differentiation of carrot callus cultures by carbendazim and benzimidazole. Indian J. Exp Biol. 1982; 20: 674-677.
Garcia PC, Rivero RM, Ruiz JM, Romero L. The role of fungicides in the physiology of higher plants: Implications for defence responses. Bot. Rev. 2003; 69: 162-172.
Rout GR, Samantaray S, Das P. In vitro manipulation and propagation of medicinal plants. Biotechnol. Adv. 2000; 18(2): 91-120.
Hassan AKMS, Roy SK. Micropropagation of Gloriosa superba L. through high frequency shoots proliferation. Plant Tiss. Cult. Biotechnol. 2005; 15: 67-74.
Goliaris A, Roupakias D. Yield performance of interspecific F1 hybrids of the Greek mountain tea (Sideritis spp. L.). Plant Breed. 1997; 166: 493-497.
Murashige T, Skoog F. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 1962; 15: 473-497.
Werbrouck SPO, Debergh PC. Possible role of gibberellins in the interaction between cytokinins and pesticides. Acta Hortic. 1997; 447: 59-62.
Tefera W, Wannakrairoj S. A micropropagation method for korarima [Aframomum corrorima (Braun) Jansen]. ScienceAsia, 2004; 30: 1-7.
Wannakrairoj S, Tefera W. Thidiazuron and other plant bioregulators for axenic culture of Siam cardamom (Amomum krervanh Pierre ex Gagnep.). Kasetsart J. (Nat. Sci.) 2012; 46: 335-345.
Tefera W, Wannakrairoj S. Synergistic effects of some plant growth regulators on in vitro shoot proliferation of korarima [Aframomum corrorima (Braun) Jansen]. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2006; 5: 1894-1901.
Topoonyanont N, Debergh PC. Reducing bushiness in micropropagated Gerbera. Plant Cell Tiss. Organ Cult. 2001; 67: 133-144.
Fletcher RA, Gilley A, Sankhala N, Davis TD. Triazoles as growth regulators and stress protectants. Hort. Rev. 2000; 24: 55-138.
Mahadev MD, Panathula CS, Naidu CV. Influence of bavistin, cefotoxime, kanamycin and silver thiosulphate on plant regeneration of Solanum viarum (Dunal) - An important anticancer medicinal plant. Am. J. Plant Sci. 2014; 5: 403-408.
Panathula CS, Mahadev MDN, Naidu CV. The stimulatory effects of the antimicrobial agents bavistin, cefotaxime and kanamycin on in vitro plant regeneration of Centella asiatica (L.) - An important antijaundice medicinal plant. Am. J. Plant Sci. 2014; 5: 279-285.
Reddy SH, Chakravarthi C, Chandrashekara KN, Naidu CV. Influence of bavistin and silver thiosulphate on in vitro regeneration of Asclepias curassavica (L.) using nodal explants. Am. J. Plant Sci. 2012; 3: 941-946.
Sujana P, Naidu CV. Influence of bavistin, cefotaxime, kanamycin and silver thiosulphate on plant regeneration of Mentha piperita (L.) - An important multipurpose medicinal plant. J. Phytol. 2011; 3: 36-40.
Preethi D, Sridhar TM, Naidu CV. Effect of bavistin and silver thiosulphate on in vitro plant regeneration of Stevia rebaudiana. J. Phytol. 2011; 3: 74-77.
Bantawa P, Roy OS, Ghosh P, Mondal TK. Effect of bavistin and adenine sulphate on in vitro shoot multiplication of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora Pennell.: An endangered medicinal plant of Indo?China Himalayan regions. 2009; Plant Tiss. Cult. & Biotechnol. 19: 237-245.
Baskaran P, Jayabalan N. An improved protocol for adventitious shoot regeneration and plant formation in Psoralea corylifolia L. 2009; Sci. Hortic. 123: 283-286.
Debergh PC, Coster G, Steurbaut W. Carbendazim as an alternative plant growth regulator in tissue culture systems. 1993; In Vitro Cell. Develop. Biol.-Plant 29: 89-91.
Tiwari V, Tiwari KN, Sing BD. Shoot bud regeneration from different explants of Bacopa monniera (L.) Wettst. by trimethoprim and bavistin. Plant Cell Rep. 2006; 25: 629-635.
Nandi SK, Palni LMS, Rikkari HC. Chemical induction of adventitious root formation in Taxus baccata cuttings. Plant Growth Regul. 1996; 19: 117-122.
Copyright (c) 2019 Virginia Sarropoulou, Eleni Maloupa
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.