Relationships of Selected Endogenous Factors Associated with Direct Somatic Embryogenesis of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.)
Coffee is one of the most important cash crops produced in the world with great economic returns to growers and national gross domestic product. Somatic embryogenesis is a morphogenetic processes leading to plantlet regeneration and these processes are coupled with changes in the levels of primary metabolites. The present experiment established relationships of endogenous substances with direct somatic embryogenesis of coffee ‘Ruiru 11’. Laboratory experiments were set up at Coffee Research Institute, Ruiru-Kenya between 2014 and 2017. The set up was in a completely randomised design, replicated three times and repeated once. Third leaf pair explants were excised from 8-month-old greenhouse-grown mother plants and cultured in half strength Murashige and Skoog basal salts augmented with Thidiazuron. Once embryos had developed, the cultures were analysed for endogenous substances using HPLC and GCMS. Sucrose, phenolics, alkaloids, amino acids, fatty acids and their derivatives correlated positively, whereas fructose and glucose correlated negatively with the other biochemical components. Endogenous sucrose, chlorogenic acid, caffeine amino acid, fatty acids and their derivatives are potential biomarkers for coffee somatic embryogenesis, whereas endogenous fructose and glucose are inhibitors of the same. Further studies regarding the status of the biochemical components, especially in particular stages of embryo development should be conducted to establish treatments that can improve coffee direct somatic embryo development.
AOAC. 1997. AOAC Official Method 994.12. Amino Acids in Feeds. Performic Acid Oxidation with AcidHydrolysis-Sodium Metabisulfite Method.
Cailloux, F., Julien-Guerrier, J., Linossier, L., Coudret, A. 1996. Long-term somatic embryo in Hevea brasilinensis. Plant Science 120: 185–196.
Chung, W., Pedersen, H. and Chin, C. K. 1992. Enhanced somatic embryo production by conditioned media in cell suspension cultures of Daucus carota. Biotechnology Letters 14: 837-840.
Guan, Y., Ren, H., Xie, H., MA, Z., And Chen, F. 2009. Identification and characterization of bZIP-typetranscription factors involved in carrot (Daucus carota L.) somatic embryogenesis. The Plant Journal 60:207–217.
Jaetzold, R., Schmidt, H., Hornet, Z.B., and Shisanya, C.A. 2007. Farm Management Handbook of Kenya. Natural Conditions and Farm Information. 2nd Edition. Vol. 11/B. Central Kenya. Ministry of Agriculture/GTZ, Nairobi, Kenya.
Jain, A.K., Meena., and Kumar, D. 2014. In-vivo and in-vitro comparative study of primary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Catharanthus roseus. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research 42:42-46.
Kathurima, C.W. and E.K. Njoroge. 2012. Effect of different shade regimes on coffee quality. Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Coffee Science ASIC held at San Jose, from 11th to 16th November, 2012.
Khosroushahi, A. D., Naderi-Manesh, H., and Simonsen, H. T. 2011. Effect of antioxidants and carbohydrates in callus cultures of Taxus brevifolia: Evaluation of browning, callus growth, total phenolics and paclitaxel production. BioImpacts, 1: 37-45.
Lipavská, H., and Konrádová, H. 2004. Somatic embryogenesis in conifers: The role of carbohydrate metabolism. In Vitro Cellular and Development Biology-Plant 40:23-30.
Lopez-Molina, L., Mongrand, S. and Chua, N.H. 2001. A post-germination developmental arrest checkpoint is mediated by abscisic acid and requires ABI5 transcription factor in Arabidopsis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 98: 4782–4787.
Lulsdorf, M.M., Tautorus, T.E., Kikcio, S.I., and Dunstan, D.I. 1992. Growth parameter of somatic embryogenic suspension culture of interior spruce Picea glauca-Engelmannii Complex and black spruce (Picea mariana Mill.). Plant Science. 82:227-234.
Mahmud, I., Thapaliya, M., Boroujerdi, A., and Chowdhury, K. 2014. NMR-based metabolomics study of the biochemical relationship between sugarcane callus tissues and their respective nutrient culture media. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 40624: 5997–6005. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-014-8002-6.
Matthys-Rochon, E. 2005. Secreted molecules and their role in embryo formation in plants: A mini-review.Acta Biologica Cracoviensia series Botanica 47:23–29. 1338
Navarro, B. V., Elbl, P., De Souza, A. P., Jardim, V., de Oliveira, L. F., Macedo, A. F., Floh, E. I. S. 2017.Carbohydrate-mediated responses during zygotic and early somatic embryogenesis in the endangere conifer, Araucaria angustifolia. PLoS ONE, 127: e0180051. https://doi.org/10.1371/ journal.pone.0180051.
Nic-Can, G.I., Galaz-Ávalos, R.M., De-la-Peña, C., Alcazar-Magaña, A., and Loyola-Vargas, V.M. 2015. Somatic Embryogenesis: Identified factors that lead to embryogenic repression. A case of species of the same genus. PLoSONE 106: e0126414. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126414.
Nomura, K. and Komamine, A. 1995. Physiological and bio-chemical aspects of somatic embryogenesis. In: T.A. Thorpe (Ed.). In Vitro Embryogenesis in Plants, pp. 249–265. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Obembe, O.O., Khan, T., Popoola, J.O., Singh A.K., and Pant, R.C. 2010. Endogenous levels of reducing sugars, free amino acids and phenols during various stages of in vitro culture of cotton (Gossypium spp.). International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 46: 2371-2378.
Osborne, D.R., and Voogt, P. 1978. The analysis of nutrients of food. London, Academic Press.
Pasternak, T.P., Prinsen, E., Ayaydin, F., Miskolczi, P., Potters, G., Asard, and Fehér, A. 2002. The role of auxin, pH, and stress in the activation of embryogenic cell division in leaf protoplast-derived cells of alfalfa. Plant Physiology 1294: 1807-1819.
Rolland, F., Moore, B., and Sheen, J. 2002. Sugar sensing and signaling in plants. Plant Cell 14:185–205.
Shettima, A.Y., Karumi, Y., Sodipo O.A., Usman, H. and Tijjani M.A. 2013. Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry GC-MS analysis of bioactive components of ethyl acetate root extract of Guiera senegalensis J.F. Gmel. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 33: 146-150.
Sin, E.H.K. 2012. The extraction and fractionation of waxes from biomass. Ph.D. Thesis, University of York.
Lorenzo, J.C., and Angeles, M. L. 2001. Sugarcane micro propagation and phenolic excretion. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 65:1-8.
Neuenschwander, B., and Baumann, T.W. 1992. A novel type of somatic embryogenesis in Coffea arabica. Plant Cell Reports 10:608-612.
Dudits, D., Györgyey, J. Bögre, L., and Bakó, L. 1995 Molecular biology of somatic embryogenesis. In: T.A. Thorpe (Ed.). In Vitro Embryogenesis in Plants. pp. 267-308 Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Copyright (c) 2018 JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN AGRICULTURE
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.