AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION IN NEPAL: EXPERIENCES AND ISSUES
A detail study on the experience of agricultural extension in Nepal was done by discussion with experts, academicians and involved agricultural officers of Nepal along with review of different documents, books and articles on the subject matter. Since from the first effort of extension service, Training and visit, Integrated Rural Development Approach, Tuki Approach, Farming System Research and Extension Approach, Block Production Program were the approaches used in the past. Conventional Educational Approach, Pocket Package Approach, Projectization Approach, Farmersâ€™ Group Approach, Farmers Field School Approach, Partnership Approach are the approaches being followed presently in agricultural extension in Nepal. The extension efforts in the country are guided by the National Agricultural Extension Strategy. Department of agriculture under ministry of agricultural development is responsible for providing public extension service via District Agriculture Development Office (DADO), Agriculture Service Centre, Contact Centre, Model Agriculture Service Centre and Community Agriculture Service Centre at the farmers level. Farmerâ€™s Group and cooperatives, International and National Nongovernmental organizations, Community Based Organizations and few private entities are providing the private extension services. major issues found in public extension systems are lack of motivation among the rural youths, farmers; natural resource degradation and climate change and sustainability issues; inadequate number of the extension workers and their qualification and skills; inadequate infrastructure and capacity for use of ICTs among the ground level extension workers; lack of monitoring and assessment of impact of extension activities in rural farmers; low level of need based extension coverage particularly for small farmers; ineffective and weak linkages between stakeholders at different levels; low level of education of farmers; insufficient budget and investment for extension activities; domination of supply driven approaches rather than demand driven; inadequate extension services in parts of value addition and market exposure.
2. Adhikary, J. & Chapagain, K.N. (2008). Community Service Centre: Concept Paper. A paper presented by Regional Agriculture Directorate, Pokhara in Department of Agriculture, RAD, Pokhara.
3. AL-Sharafat, A., Altarawneh, M. & Altahat E. (2012). Effectiveness of agricultural extension activities in Jordan, Am. J. Agric. Biol. Sci., ISSN 1557-4989194-200 USA.
4. Anderson, J.R, Feder, G. & Ganguly, S. (2006). The rise and fall of Training and Visti Extension: An Asian Mini-drama with an African Epilogue, Agriculture and Rural Development Deparment, WPS3928, World Bank.
5. Atchoarena, D. & Gasperini, L. (2003). Education for rural development: Toward new policy responses. Joint study by UNESCO and FAO. FAO, Rome.
6. Atsan, T., Isik, B., Yavuz, F. & Yurttas, Z. (2009). Factors affecting agricultural extension services in Northeast Anatolia Region. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 4(4), 305â€“310.
7. Babu, S. C., Glendenning,C. J., Okyere, K. A. & Govindarajan, S. K. (2011). Farmersâ€™ information needs and search behaviors: Case study in Tamil Nadu, India. International Food Policy Research Institute
8. Baloch, M. A. & Thapa, G. B. (2017). Review of the agricultural extension modes and services with the focus to Balochistan, Pakistan. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2017.05.001
9. Baloch, M. A. & Thapa,G. B. (2014). Agricultural extension in Balochistan Pakistan: date palm farmersâ€™ access and satisfaction, J. Mt. Sci., 11 (4),1035â€“1048. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11629-013-2837-8
10. Baloch, M.A. & Thapa, G.B. (2016). The effect of agricultural extension services: date farmersâ€™ case in Balochistan, Pakistan. J. Saudi Soc. Agric. Sci., https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2016.05.007
11. Benjamin, A.M.N. (2013). Farmersâ€™ perception of effectiveness of agricultural extension devlivery in cross-river state, Nigeria. IOSR J. Agric. Vet. Sci., 2 (6), 01â€“07. e-ISSN: 2319-2380, p-ISSN: 2319-2372.
12. Benor, D., Harrison, J.Q. & Baxter, M. (1984). Agricultural Extension: The Training and Visit System. World Bank, Washington, D.C.
13. Bernet, T., Ortiz, O., Estrada, R., Quiroz, R. & Swinton, S.M. (2001). Tailoring agricultural extension to different production contests: a user-friendly farm-household model to improve decision-making for participatory research. Agric. Syst., 69, 183â€“198.
14. Betru, T. & Hamdar, B. (1999). Strengthening the linkages between research and extension in agriculture higher education institutions in developing countries. Int. J. Educ. Dev., 17 (3), 303â€“311
15. Birner, R., & Anderson, J. R. (2007). How to make agricultural extension demand driven? The case of India's agricultural extension policy. Intl Food Policy Res Inst,. 729.
16. Butt, T.M., Mehmood, K., & Muhammad, S. (2005). Working of commodity specialized extension approach followed by sugar mills in Faisalabad. Pakistan. J. Agri. Soc. Soc 3, 252â€“254.
17. Byerlee, D. (2000). Targeting poverty alleviation in priority setting for agricultural research. Food Policy, 25 (2000), 429â€“445.
18. Center for Human Rights and Global Justice. (2011). Every Thirty Minutes: Farmer Suicides, Human Rights, and the Agrarian Crisis in India, New York.
19. Chambers, R. (1995). Rural Development Putting the Last First. Alfred Place, London.
20. Chhetri, M. B. P. & Shakya, A. (2016). Environmental degradation in Nepal. Ministry of Physical Planning and Works, Government of Nepal.
21. Davidson, A. P., Ahmad, M., Ali, T. (2001). Dilemmas of agriculture extension in Pakistan: Food for thought, Odi, Agricultural Research & Extension Network, AGREN network paper no.116.
22. DFID. (2005). Growth and poverty reduction: the role of agriculture, Department of International Development.
23. DOA. (2017). Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agricultural Development, Nepal. Retrieved on July 20, 2017 at http://www.doanepal.gov.np/content.php?id=204
24. Dongol B.B.S. (2004). Extension Education. Kathmandu, Nepal: Pratibha Singh Dongol
25. Eicher, C.K. (2007). Agricultural extension in Africa and Asia. Department of Agriculture Economics, MSU, East Lansing.
26. FAO, (2017). Nepal at a glance. Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrived on http://www.fao.org/nepal/fao-in-nepal/nepal-at-a-glance/en/ date 2017 July 20
27. FAO. (2010). Mobilizing the potential of rural and agricultural extension. Ian Christoplos, Danish Institute for International Studies, Rome
28. FAO. (2002). From Farmer Field School to Community Integrated Pest Management (IMP). Ten years of IMP training in Asia, Thailand
29. FAO. (2010). Agricultural Extension Services Delivery System in Nepal, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Pulchowk, Nepal
30. FAO., (2014). Youth and agriculture: key challenges and concrete solutions. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
31. Ghosh, S. (2012). Innovations in public sector-led agricultural extension. Sci. Res. Essays, 7 (49), pp. 4170â€“4175
32. Global Hunger Index, (2010). The Challenge of Hunger: Focus of the Crises of Child Undernutrition, Washington, D.C.
33. GÃ³mez, M., Mueller, B. & Wheeler, M. K. (2016). Private Sector Extension Activities Targeting Small Farmers in Developing Countries. MEAS Report January 2016. USAID
34. Hagmann, J., E. Chuma, Murwira, K. & Connolly, M. (1999). Putting process into practice: operationalising participatory extension, Network paper No. 94. Agr. Res. Ext. Res.
35. Hu, R., Yang,Z., Kelly,P. & Huang, J. (2009). Agricultural extension system reform and agent time allocation in China. China Econ. Rev., 20, 303â€“315.
36. Idachaba, F.S. (1997). Human capital and African agricultural development. In: Peters, G.H. and Hedley, D.D. (Eds) Agricultural competetiveness: Market forces and policy choice. Dartmouth, Aldershot, UK.
37. International Finance Cooperation, (2010). How to make agri-finance benefit rural in emerging markets, Beijing, China.
38. Investment Board Nepal, (2016). Agriculture Sector Profile, Investment Board Nepal, New Baneshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal, Government of Nepal.
39. Joshi, P. K., Gulati, A., Birthal, P. S. & Tewari, L. (2004). Agriculture Diversification in South Asia: Patterns, Determinants and Policy Implications. Economic and Political Weekly, 39(24), 2457â€“2467. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/4415148.
40. K.C., G., Pradhan, D., Upadhyay, B. P. & Upadhyay, S. (2003). Sharing Country Agricultural Extension Experiences, Challenges and Opportunities. Country: Napal. Prepared for Regional Workshop on Operationalizing Agriculture Extension Reform in South Asia. May 6, 2003.
41. Lockheed, M. E., Jamison, D. T. & Lau, L. J. (1979). Farmer Education and Farm Efficiency: A Survey. Educational Testing Service. Stanford University, Princeton, New Jersey
42. Luqman, M., Ahmed, K., Ashraf, M. Y. & Khan, Z. I. (2007). Effectiveness of decentralized agricultural system: a case study of Pakistan. Afri. Crop Science Conference. 8, 1465â€“1472.
43. Majid, S. & Anwar, M. A. (2000). Information needs information seeking behavior of agricultural scientists in Malaysia. Libr. Inf. Sci. Res., 22 (2), 145â€“163.
44. Mmbengwa, V. M., Gundidza, M., Groenewald, J. A. & Van Schalkwyk, H. D. (2009). Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective service to pre and post-settled farmers in government initiated and supported farming small, micro and medium enterprises. South African Journal of Agricultural Extension, 38 (1).
45. MOAC (2007). Nepal Agricultural Extension Strategy (NAES) 2007. Unofficial translation from Nepali NAES 2063. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative, Nepal Government, Singha Durbar, Kathmandu
46. Nell, W. T. & napier, R. J. (2006). Strategic approach to farming success. W.T. Nell, Bloemfontein.
47. NPC, 1975. The fifth plan (1975-80) National Planning Commission, His Majestyâ€™s Government, Nepal.
48. Ortmann, G. F. & king, R. P. (2007). Agricultural cooperatives II: Can they facilitate access of small-scale farmers in South Africa to input and product markets? Agrekon, 46: 219-244.
49. Qamar, M. K. (2005). Modernizing National Agricultural Extension Systems: A Practical Guide for Policy-makers of Developing Countries, United Nations.
50. Riaz, M. (2010). The role of the private sector in agricultural extension in Pakistan. Rural Dev. News, 1, 15â€“22.
51. Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations (5th edition) Free Press, New York.
52. Roling, N. (1990). Why Studies in Agricultural and Rural Development: Extension Science, Information System in Agriculture Department, Cambridge University, New York .
53. Rosegrant, M. & Cline, S. (2003). Global food security: Challenges and policies. Science, 1917-1919.
54. Ruane, J., & Sonnino, A. (2011). Agricultural biotechnologies in developing countries and their possible contribution to food security, J. Biotechnol.
55. SAAPE, (2011). Review of plans and budgets in Agriculture (Agriculture and planned development in Nepal). South Asia Alliance for Poverty Eradication.
56. Sachs, D.J. (2006). Millennium Project, UK.
57. Sandhu, G. R. (1993). Sustainable agriculture, report prepared by Pakistan conservation strategy in collaboration with IUCN, the world conservation union of Pakistan.
58. Schiff, M. & Valdes, A. (1995). The plundering of agriculture in developing countries. Finance Dev., 44â€“48.
59. Shah, M.T., Ali, I. M., Khan, N. A., Nafees, Shafi, M. M. & Raza, S. (2010). Agriculture extension curriculum: an analysis of agriculture extension students views in the agricultural universities of Pakistan, Sarhad, J. Agric., 26 (3).
60. Sharma, N. K. (2011). Country Paper on National Agricultural Extension Systems in NEPAL: An Analysis of the System Diversity, SAARC Agriculture Centre, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
61. Siddiqui , A. A., & Mirani, Z. (2012). Farmerâ€™s perception of agricultural extension regarding diffusion of agricultural technology. Pak. J. Agri., Agril. Eng., Vet. Sci., 83â€“96
62. Swanson B. E., Bentz, R. P. & Sofranko, A. J. (1997). Improving agricultural extension. A reference manual, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome
63. Thapa, T.B. (2005). Agricultural Extension Reform through Devolution in Nepal. A paper presented in the National Extension Workshop Organized during 2062/8/28 & 29 at Kathmandu, Nepal. Proceedings of National Agriculture Extension Workshop (Dec13- 14,2005). Department of Agriculture Extension, Hariharbhawan, Lalitpur
64. Timmer, C.P. (2005). Agriculture and Pro-Poor Growth An Asian Perspective, Center for Global Development, Working Paper Number 62, Washington D.C.
65. Work Bank. (2008). World Development Report for Agriculture Development, Washington, D. C.
66. World Bank (2007). Cultivating knowledge and skills to grow African agriculture. A synthesis of institutional, regional and international reviews. The World Bank: Agricultural and Rural development Department. Washington DC.
67. World Bank, (2003). Operationalizing agricultural extension reforms in south Asia-a case of Pakistan: Country paper, regional workshop held in new Delhi, India, May 6â€“8.
68. World Bank, (2010). Extension and Advisory Systems: Procedures for Assessing, Transforming, and Evaluating Extension Systems, Washington, D.C.
69. World Development Report, (2008). For Agriculture Development, Washington, D.C.
Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.
The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations. The submitting author is responsible for securing any permissions needed for the reuse of copyrighted materials included in the manuscript.
While the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate on the date of its going to press, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.