INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS & TECHNOLOGY https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct Interested in submitting to this journal? We recommend that you review the About the Journal page for the journal's section policies, as well as the Author Guidelines. Authors need to register with the journal prior to submitting or, if already registered, can simply log in and begin the five-step process. en-US <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> editor@cirworld.com (Gurdev Singh) ijct@cirworld.com (Gurpreet Singh) Fri, 06 Jul 2018 08:36:05 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Annual Reviewer Acknowledgement https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7810 <p>The editorial team of the journal would like to thank the reviewers for their work in referring manuscripts during 2018.</p> Chief Editor ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7810 Fri, 28 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 In-Silico Methodologies for Cancer Multidrug Optimization https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7168 <p>Drug combinations is considered as an effective strategy designed to control complex diseases like cancer. Combinations of drugs can effectively decrease side effects and enhance adaptive resistance. Therefore, increasing the likelihood of defeating complex diseases in a synergistic way. This is due to overcoming factors such as off-target activities, network robustness, bypass mechanisms, cross-talk across compensatory escape pathways and the mutational heterogeneity which results in alterations within multiple molecular pathways. The plurality of effective drug combinations used in clinic were found out through experience. The molecular mechanisms underlying these drug combinations are often not clear, which makes it not easy to suggest new drug combinations. Computational approaches are proposed to reduce the search space for defining the most promising combinations and prioritizing their experimental evaluation. In this paper, we review methods, techniques and hypotheses developed for in silico methodologies for drug combination discovery in cancer, and discuss the limitations and challenges of these methods.</p> Doaa Mohamed Hasan, Ahmed Sharaf Eldin, Ayman Elsayed Khedr, Hanan Fahmy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7168 Fri, 22 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Data Security In Cloud Computing: A Review https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7551 <p>Cloud computing is Internet ("cloud") based development and use of computer technology ("computing"). It is a style of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet. Cloud computing uses the internet and the central remote servers to support different data and applications. It is an internet based technology. It permits the users to approach their personal files at any computer with internet access. The cloud computing flexibility is a function of the allocation of resources on authority’s request. Cloud computing provides the act of uniting. Scientific computing in the 21st century has evolved from fixed to distributed work environment. The current trend of CloudComputing (CC) allows accessing business applications from anywhere just by connecting to the Internet. Evidence shows that, switching to CC organizations' annual expenditure and maintenance are being reduced to a greater extent. However, there are several challenges that come along with various benefits of cloud computing. Among these include securityaspects. Our aim is to identify security challenges for adapting cloud computing and their solutions from real world for the challenge that do not have any proper mitigation strategies identified. This non-existence of global standards and guidelines could be help academics to know the state of practice and formulatebetter methods/standards to provide secure interoperability. The identified cloud computing security challenges and solutions can be referred by practitioners to understand which areas of security need to be concentrated while adapting/migrating to a cloud computing environment.</p> Gurjeet Singh, Dr. Mohita Garg ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7551 Fri, 06 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Knn And Steerable Pyramid Based Enhanced Content Based Image Retrieval Mechanism https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7606 <p>Recently, digital content has become a significant and inevitable asset of or any enterprise and the need for visual content management is on the rise as well. There has been an increase in attention towards the automated management and retrieval of digital images owing to the drastic development in the number and size of image databases. A significant and increasingly popular approach that aids in the retrieval of image data from a huge collection is called Content-based image retrieval (CBIR). Content-based image retrieval has attracted voluminous research in the last decade paving way for development of numerous techniques and systems besides creating interest on fields that support these systems. CBIR indexes the images based on the features obtained from visual content so as to facilitate speedy retrieval. Content based image retrieval from large resources has become an area of wide interest nowadays in many applications. In this thesis work, we present a steerable pyramid based image retrieval system that uses color, contours and texture as visual features to describe the content of an image region. To speed up retrieval and similarity computation, the database images are classified and the extracted regions are clustered according to their feature vectors using KNN algorithm We have used steerable pyramid to extract texture features from query image and classified database images and store them in feature features. Therefore to answer a query our system does not need to search the entire database images; instead just a number of candidate images are required to be searched for image similarity.&nbsp; Our proposed system has the advantage of increasing the retrieval accuracy and decreasing the retrieval time.</p> Bohar Singh, Mrs. Mehak Aggarwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7606 Fri, 06 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0000 A Review On Content Based Image Retrieval https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7607 <p>In current years, very huge collections of images and videos have grown swiftly. In parallel with this boom, content-based image retrieval and querying the indexed collections of images from the large database are required to access visible facts and visual information. Three of the principle additives of the visual images are texture, shape and color. Content based image retrieval from big sources has a wide scope in many application areas and software’s.&nbsp; To accelerate retrieval and similarity computation, the database images are analyzed and the extracted regions are clustered or grouped together with their characteristic feature vectors. As a result of latest improvements in digital storage technology, it's easy and possible to create and store the large quantity of images inside the image database.&nbsp; These collections may additionally comprise thousands and thousands of images and terabytes of visual information like their shape, texture and color.&nbsp; For users to make the most from those image databases, efficient techniques and mechanisms of searching should be devised. Having a computer to do the indexing primarily based on a CBIR scheme attempts to deal with the shortcomings of human-based indexing.&nbsp; Since anautomated process on a computer can analyze and process the images at a very quick and efficient rate that human can never do alone. In this paper, we will discuss the structure of CBIR with their feature vectors.</p> Bohar Singh, Mrs.Mehak Aggarwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7607 Fri, 06 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0000 HTSCC A Hybrid Task Scheduling Algorithm in Cloud Computing Environment https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7584 <p>Nowadays, cloud computing makes it possible for users to use the computing resources like application, software, and hardware, etc., on pay as use model via the internet. One of the core and challenging issue in cloud computing is the task scheduling. Task scheduling problem is an NP-hard problem and is responsible for mapping the tasks to resources in a way to spread the load evenly. The appropriate mapping between resources and tasks reduces makespan and maximizes resource utilization. In this paper, we present and implement an independent task scheduling algorithm that assigns the users' tasks to multiple computing resources. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid algorithm for task scheduling in cloud computing based on a genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The algorithm is implemented and simulated using CloudSim simulator. The simulation results show that our proposed algorithm outperforms the GA and PSO algorithms by decreasing the makespan and increasing the resource utilization.</p> Rasha Ali Al-Arasi, Anwar Saif ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7584 Wed, 29 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Design and Simulation of MEMS Sensor for Detection of Arterial Pulse https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7574 <p>The work presented in this paper describe the design and simulation of a MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System) system based piezoelectric sensor for detecting arterial pulse in biomedical application. The study is done through the analysis of square and circular diaphragm made out of piezoelectric and MEMS material. In this work, piezoelectric material is used which work on the principle of piezoelectric effect. In piezoelectric effect, diaphragm reorients under stress, form an internal polarization which result in crystal charge on the crystal face that is proportional to applied pressure. When pressure is applied on diaphragm deformation occurs which converts physical energy into output electrical voltage. For selecting the appropriate geometry and material for sensor design different parameter were checked such as deformation, output voltage, Stress and linearity. FEM analysis is done for circular and square diaphragm on COMSOL Multi-Physics. Comparison of square and circular diaphragm is done on the basis of deformation and Electrical potential. Piezoelectric sensor is designed and simulated with lithium-Niobate and poly-si. Sensitivity obtained for the designed sensor is about 4mV/Kpa.</p> Sonali navghare ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7574 Mon, 03 Sep 2018 06:07:53 +0000 Cloud Computing Environment: A Review https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7674 <p>Cloud computing is a vigorous technology by which a user can get software, application, operating system and hardware as a service without actually possessing it and paying only according to the usage. Cloud Computing is a hot topic of research for the researchers these days. With the rapid growth of Internet technology cloud computing have become main source of computing for small as well big IT companies. In the cloud computing milieu the cloud data centers and the users of the cloud-computing are globally situated, therefore it is a big challenge for cloud data centers to efficiently handle the requests which are coming from millions of users and service them in an efficient manner.Cloud computing is Internet based development and use of computer technology. It is a style of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet. Users need not have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. Scheduling is one of the core steps to efficiently exploit the capabilities of heterogeneous computing systems. On cloud computing platform, load balancing of the entire system can be&nbsp; dynamically handled&nbsp; by&nbsp; using&nbsp; virtualization&nbsp; technology through which it&nbsp; becomes&nbsp; possible&nbsp; to&nbsp; remap&nbsp; virtual&nbsp; machine&nbsp; and physical resources &nbsp;according&nbsp; to&nbsp; the&nbsp; change&nbsp; in&nbsp; load. However, in order to improve performance, the virtual machines have to fully utilize its resources and services by adapting to computing environment dynamically.&nbsp; The&nbsp; load balancing&nbsp; with&nbsp; proper&nbsp; allocation&nbsp; of&nbsp; resources&nbsp; must&nbsp; be guaranteed&nbsp; in&nbsp; order&nbsp; to&nbsp; improve&nbsp; resource&nbsp; utility. &nbsp;Load balancing is a critical aspect that ensures that all the resources and entities are well balanced such that no resource or entity neither is under loaded nor overloaded. The load balancing algorithms can be static or dynamic.&nbsp; Load balancing in this environment means equal distribution of workload across all the nodes. Load balancing provides a way of achieving the proper utilization of resources and better user satisfaction. Hence, use of an appropriate load balancing algorithm is necessary for selecting the virtual machines or servers. This paper focuses on the load balancing algorithm which distributes the incoming jobs among VMs optimally in cloud data centers. In this paper, we have reviewed several existing load balancing mechanisms and we have tried to address the problems associated with them.</p> Ishaan Chawla ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7674 Fri, 06 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Certification des coopératives et stratification sociale dans les communautés cacaoyères en Côte d’Ivoire https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7576 <p>La certification des coopératives a été envisagée à partir de la campagne 2004/2005 pour faire face à la menace des pays exportateurs de ne plus payer le cacao ivoirien du fait du travail d’enfants dans les exploitations. Cette politique vise non seulement à garantir la vente du cacao, mais aussi à assurer aux producteurs de meilleurs prix. Mais, la certification des premières coopératives cacaoyères soulève déjà de nouveaux problèmes de développement rural. La certification est source de différenciation sociale et de tensions sociales entre les membres des coopératives certifiées. L’objectif de l’étude est de comprendre le lien entre la mise en œuvre de cette politique de certification des coopératives et les problèmes survenus à la suite. &nbsp;Notre enquête menée auprès des agents des ONG de certification (UTZ Certified) et d’organismes de certification agréés (Bureau Véritas), des responsables des coopératives certifiées (Directeurs Généraux, Administrateur de groupe, Paysans Relais) et des producteurs-membres de quatre coopératives révèle que la certification du cacao n’a pu prendre en compte l’entièreté des producteurs de sorte que tous n’ont pu bénéficier de la prime de certification. Dans la coopérative COOPADIS d’Issia par exemple, seulement 52,35% sont certifiés sur un total de 3293 coopérateurs. La certification a ainsi entrainé la catégorisation des paysans à l’origine de la stratification économique et de la fragilisation de la cohésion sociale dans les communautés rurales.</p> Kam Oleh, Sangare Moussa, Mouroufie Kouassi Kouman Vincent ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7576 Wed, 05 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Mobile Health-monitoring System with Inference, Fall Detection, and Cardiovascular Prediction https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7621 <p>As the lifetime of human being gets longer, the problems of chronic diseases grow more. In order to make sure the health statuses of patients are not getting worse, they must be health-monitored continuously in a long term. In this paper, a mobile health-monitoring system is built for patients in place of traditional health-caring manners, which not only gives patients more free spaces, but also can save medical resources, diagnose and predict diseases earlier. In the procedures of health-caring in-house and emergency treatment, a series of vital sensors are combined by integrating sensor network and wireless/mobile network technology to continuously transmit physiological signals of patients to a medical center in a real time, and then doctors can monitor the health statuses of patients exactly, thereby proceeding with diagnosing, recovering, and treatments.</p> Yin-Fu Huang ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7621 Fri, 21 Sep 2018 05:09:01 +0000 An Application of Numbers and Characters Recognition on Radar Images https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7626 <p>From the project of the date and time reading in the Radar images, the OCR templates technique was applied because some Radar images do not have date and time information in their properties. The method had the problems that the Radar images could not be retrieved when the month names are changed and then the new month name templates had to be created. Therefore, this work has applied Tesseract OCR library to help read the date and time images and used Fast Normalized Cross-Correlation theory to enhance the performance of the template matching and to retrieve more Radar images. The accuracy of results in this program using Fast Normalized Cross-Correlation with OCR templates was 86 percent.</p> Prattana Deeprasertkul ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7626 Fri, 21 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Gearing Up Education Towards Industry 4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7754 <p>Industry has changed creatively with manufacturing systems and technological applications supplementing in the work preparation, reporting variants, methods and resources for effective production management by constant improvements and usage has matured it way to Industry 4.0. Industry has undergone various revolutions up to now, and through cyber-physical systems would communicate, collaborate in real time of the process and product value stream. Technology upgrades will bring optimization in various resource utilization and focus on satisfying customers even over their ever increasingly demand. The gadgetry conveniences would bring the wearable’s and embedded handle large databases for dynamic mining and interpretations obsoleting the necessity of strain in carrying laptops or pads. &nbsp;Innovation would be successful as it facilitates quick product developed self-customized for use at the shortest development time. Student-centered learning, learning consequences will have lifelong erudition where educational institutions will develop robust integrated systems and infrastructure to facilitate learning by doing rather than by the conventional learning. New age of Industry 4.0 will bring in a considerable change in physical world as in the virtual facilitation enabled by digital connect shrinking the distances, removing differences, and conducting real time transfer knowledge and material transfer globally. Being technologically prepared is the need of the time then to wait for the opportunity to push the educational system to change, where the time loss would handicap the economy and younger generations to be forced to compete even with perceived incapable and smaller frugalities.</p> Dr. Krishnan Umachandran, Igor Jurcic, Debra Ferdinand-James, Mohamed Mohamed Tolba Said, Adnan Abd Rashid ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7754 Fri, 21 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Performance Comparison Of Ann Classifiers For Sleep Apnea Detection Based On Ecg Signal Analysis Using Hilbert Transform https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7616 <p>In this paper, a methodology for sleep apnea detection based on ECG signal analysis using Hilbert transform is proposed. The proposed work comprises a sequential procedure of preprocessing, QRS complex detection using Hilbert Transform, feature extraction from the detected QRS complex and the feature reduction using principal component analysis (PCA). Finally, the classification of the ECG signal recordings has been done using two different artificial neural networks (ANN), one trained with Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm and the other trained with Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG) method guided by K means clustering. The result of classification of the input ECG record is as either belonging to Apnea or Normal category. The performance measures of classification using the two classification algorithms are compared. The experimental results indicate that the SCG algorithm guided by K means clustering (ANN-SCG) has outperformed the LM algorithm (ANN-LM) by attaining accuracy, sensitivity and specificity values as 99.2%, 96% and 97% respectively, besides the saving achieved in terms of reduced number of principal components. Profiling time and mean square error of the ANN classifier trained with SCG algorithm is significantly reduced by 58% and 83%, respectively, as compared to LM algorithm.</p> Jyoti S Bali, P S Hiremath ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7616 Thu, 27 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 An Implementation of Online Voting System using Okamoto-Uchiyama Encryption Scheme https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7632 <p>Electronic voting (e-Voting) has totally replaced the traditional voting system. Due to the rapid growth of computer networks and cloud computing the existing e-Voting system can be replaced with online voting system.When data is on cloud,the major challenge in voting system is confidentiality, security and accuracy. The advances in cryptography can be used to a face these challenges.&nbsp; The presented work implements Okamoto-Uchiyama algorithm with its additive homomorphic property. This work focuses on serving voting system on large scale of voters. We have made our system more user friendly and faster but secured than existing systems.</p> Sneha N. Patil ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7632 Fri, 28 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Virtual Machine Selection Algorithm Based on User Requirements in Mobile Cloud Computing Environment https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7764 <p>The article analyzes the advantages of mobile cloud technologies and problems emerging during the use of those. The network infrastructure created based on cloudlets at the second level of mobile cloud computing with hierarchical structure is analyzed. At the same time, the article explores the issues of satisfaction of demand of mobile equipment for computing and memory resources by using these technologies. The article presents one solution for the allocation of mobile user requests in virtual machines created in cloudlets located near base stations of wireless metropolitan area networks (WMAN) in a balanced way by considering the technical capacity of those. Alongside, the article considers the solution of user problem during designated time and the issue of determining virtual machines satisfying other requirements. For this purpose, different characteristics of the stated problem, virtual machines, as well as communication channels between a user and virtual machines are considered. By using possible values determining the importance of cloudlets, conditions for loading software applications of a user to a virtual machine are explored and an appropriate method is proposed.</p> Rashid Alakbarov ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://cirworld.com/index.php/ijct/article/view/7764 Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000