INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS & TECHNOLOGY Interested in submitting to this journal? We recommend that you review the About the Journal page for the journal's section policies, as well as the Author Guidelines. Authors need to register with the journal prior to submitting or, if already registered, can simply log in and begin the five-step process. P journals en-US INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS & TECHNOLOGY 2277-3061 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> <p>The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations. The submitting author is responsible for securing any permissions needed for the reuse of copyrighted materials included in the manuscript.</p> <p>While the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate on the date of its going to press, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.</p> Impact of Ransomware on Cybersecurity <p>This paper attempts to discover ransomware exposing the lack of cyber-security. It intends to elicit attention with regards to ransomware, a newly emerged cyber threat and to help organizations; IT practitioners understand the need for cyber security knowledge and awareness plus types of tools used. The paper also discusses methodologies trends and research recommendation on cyber-security threats and provides probative strategic strategy.</p> YAYA ITAI Emmanuel Onwubiko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-16 2018-01-16 17 1 7077 7080 10.24297/ijct.v17i1.6750 DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN OTP BASED DATA SECURITY MODEL INCOPERATING AES AND SHA2 IN CLOUD ENVIRONMENT <p>Cloud computing has revolutionized the way computing and software services are delivered to the clients on demand. It offers users the ability to connect to computing resources and access IT managed services with a previously unknown level of ease. Thus, security concerns among users of the cloud have become a major barrier to the widespread growth of cloud computing. In this research work, we have used the 3 step security mechanism for the keeping the data secure at the cloud. We have implemented the strong authentication mechanism using AES encrypted OTP and enhanced the security of data using Cloud Broker and AES. When you log on to your machine and then try to access a resource, say a file server or database, something needs to assure that your username and password are valid. With sensitive data stored in the cloud of the different users, we need a strong authentication mechanism along with OTP. Data breaches because of no/weak authentication. Afterwards we have verified the integrity of data stored at cloud provider using SHA2. Multiple parameters like processing time, processing cost, AES encryption time, OTP generation and encryption time have been calculated and analyzed. We have been able to enhance the security by optimizing the processing time as well as processing cost. After implementing the proposed methodology, it has been summarized that the cloud security can be enhanced by applying the proposed mechanism. The proposed system has reduced the complexity, processing cost which increases the overall efficiency of the system.</p> Jaspreet Kaur Navdeep Kaler ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-12 2018-01-12 17 1 7081 7091 10.24297/ijct.v17i1.6930 The Analysis on the Key Factors of Fire Rescue Course Content Design – A Case Study of Miaoli County <p>This study discussed the factors affecting the design of the fire rescue and training courses for firefighters in Miaoli County. A questionnaire survey was conducted on firefighters. The content of the fire rescue courses held by Miaoli County Fire Bureau was discussed. Based on literature review and expert opinions upon Delphi method, this study analyzed the indicators of influencing factors. A hierarchical architecture was established. The weights affecting the design factor indicators affecting the fire rescue courses were obtained with the survey and analytic hierarchy process, and then were summarized and analyzed to establish a weight system.</p> Hung-Teng Chang Chih-Yao Lo Wen-Chia kevin Tu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-18 2018-01-18 17 1 7092 7102 10.24297/ijct.v17i1.6832 A NOVEL APPROACH OF JOB ALLOCATION USING MULTIPLE PARAMETERS IN IN CLOUD ENVIRONMENT <p>Cloud computing is Internet ("cloud") based development and use of computer technology ("computing"). It is a style of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet. This research deals with the balancing of work load in cloud environment. Load balancing is one of the essential factors to enhance the working performance of the cloud service provider. Grid computing utilizes the distributed heterogeneous resources in order to support complicated computing problems. Grid can be classified into two types: computing grid and data grid. We propose an improved load balancing algorithm for job scheduling in the Grid environment.&nbsp; Hence, in this research work, a multi-objective load balancing algorithm has been proposed to avoid deadlocks and to provide proper utilization of all the virtual machines (VMs) while processing the requests received from the users by VM classification. The capacity of virtual machine is computed based on multiple parameters like MIPS, RAM and bandwidth. Heterogeneous virtual machines of different MIPS and processing power in multiple data centers with different hosts have been created in cloud simulator. The VM’s are divided into 2 clusters using K-Means clustering mechanism in terms of processor MIPS, memory and bandwidth. The cloudlets are divided into two categories like High QOS and Low QOS based on the instruction size. The cloudlet whose task size is greater than the threshold value will enter into High QOS and cloudlet whose task size is lesser than the threshold value will enter into Low QOS. Submit the job of the user to the datacenter broker. The job of the user is submitted to the broker and it will first find the suitable VM according to the requirements of the cloudlet and will match VM depending upon its availability. Multiple parameters have been evaluated like waiting time, turnaround time, execution time and processing cost. This modified algorithm has an edge over the original approach in which each cloudlet build their own individual result set and it is later on built into a complete solution.</p> Ashima Ashima Vikramjit Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-16 2018-01-16 17 1 7103 7110 10.24297/ijct.v17i1.7004 AN ENHANCED CLUSTERING APPROACH FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS <p>Energy consumption is the core issue in wireless sensor networks (WSN). To generate a node energy model that can accurately reveal the energy consumption of sensor nodes is an extremely important part of protocol development, system design and performance evaluation in WSNs. In this paper, by studying component energy consumption in different node states and within state transitions, the authors present the energy models of the node core components, including processors, RF modules and sensors. One of the major issues in wireless sensor networks is developing a routing protocol which has a significant impact on the overall lifetime of the sensor network. The network area is divided into same sized small–small regions. Sensor nodes are randomly deployed in each predefined sub-area. Each region will have its region head (RH) and multiple member nodes. The member nodes in a specific region will send the data to the RH. RH within the region will be elected by distributed mechanism and will be based on fuzzy variables. It was found that the proposed algorithm gives a much improved network lifetime as compared to existing work. Based on our model, transmission tuning algorithm for cluster-based WSNs has been proposed to balance the load among cluster heads that fall in different regions. This algorithm is applied prior to a cluster algorithm to improve the performance of the clustering algorithm without affecting the performance of individual sensor nodes.</p> Harpinderjeet Kaur Sekhon Dr. Mohita ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-16 2018-01-16 17 1 7111 7119 10.24297/ijct.v17i1.7136 A Review on Load Balancing In Cloud Environment <p>Cloud computing is Internet based development and use of computer technology. It is a style of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet. Users need not have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. Scheduling is one of the core steps to efficiently exploit the capabilities of heterogeneous computing systems. On cloud computing platform, load balancing of the entire system can be&nbsp; dynamically handled&nbsp; by&nbsp; using&nbsp; virtualization&nbsp; technology through which it&nbsp; becomes&nbsp; possible&nbsp; to&nbsp; remap&nbsp; virtual&nbsp; machine&nbsp; and physical resources&nbsp; according&nbsp; to&nbsp; the&nbsp; change&nbsp; in&nbsp; load. However, in order to improve performance, the virtual machines have to fully utilize its resources and services by adapting to computing environment dynamically.&nbsp; The&nbsp; load balancing&nbsp; with&nbsp; proper&nbsp; allocation&nbsp; of&nbsp; resources&nbsp; must&nbsp; be guaranteed&nbsp; in&nbsp; order&nbsp; to&nbsp; improve&nbsp; resource&nbsp; utility.</p> Amandeep Kaur Mr. Pawan Luthra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-16 2018-01-16 17 1 7120 7125 10.24297/ijct.v17i1.7160 Faster Convergent Artificial Neural Networks <p>Proposed in this paper is a novel fast-convergence algorithm applied&nbsp; to neural networks (ANNs) with a learning rate based on the eigenvalues of the associated Hessian matrix of the input data.&nbsp;&nbsp; That is, the learning rate applied to the backpropagation algorithm changes dynamically with the input data used for training.&nbsp; The best choice of learning rate to converge to an accurate value quickly is derived. This newly proposed fast-convergence algorithm is applied to a traditional multilayer ANN architecture with feed-forward and backpropagation techniques.&nbsp; The proposed strategy is applied to various functions learned by the ANN through training.&nbsp; Learning curves obtained using calculated learning rates according to the novel method proposed are compared to learning curves utilizing an arbitrary learning rate to demonstrate the usefulness of this novel technique.&nbsp; This study shows that convergence to accurate values can be achieved much more quickly (a reduction in iterations by a factor of&nbsp; hundred) using the techniques proposed here.&nbsp; This approach is illustrated in this research work with derivations and pertinent examples to illustrate the method and learning curves obtained.&nbsp;</p> Dolores De Groff Perambur Neelakanta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-09 2018-03-09 17 1 7126 7132 10.24297/ijct.v17i1.7106 Frequency Analysis of 32-bit Modular Divider Based on Extended GCD Algorithm for Different FPGA chips <p>Modular inversion with large integers and modulus is a fundamental operation in many public-key cryptosystems. Extended Euclidean algorithm (XGCD) is an extension of Euclidean algorithm (GCD) used to compute the modular multiplicative inverse of two coprime numbers. In this paper, we propose a Frequency Analysis study of 32-bit modular divider based on extended-GCD algorithm targeting different chips of field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The experimental results showed that the design recorded the best performance results when implemented using Kintex7 (xc7k70t-2-fbg676) FPGA kit with a minimum delay period of 50.63 ns and maximum operating frequency of 19.5 MHz. Therefore, the proposed work can be embedded with many FPGA based cryptographic applications.</p> Qasem Abu Al-Hiaja Abdullah AlShuaibi Ahmad Al Badawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-09 2018-03-09 17 1 7133 7139 10.24297/ijct.v17i1.6992 Descriptive statistical analysis based on patients’ EEG energy in coma and quasi-brain-death state <p>In this paper, measure of descriptive statistical analysis based on EEG (electroencephalography) &nbsp;energy was proposed to evaluate coma and quasi-brain-death patients’ EEG. Firstly, 36 cases of EEG (coma: 19; quasi-brain-death: 17) were analyzed. Specifically, 60s EEG data of each case were randomly selected and processed to get energy data by Dynamic 2T-EMD (turning tangent empirical mode decomposition), then energy data for 36 cases of EEG obtained were grouped and analyzed by using descriptive statistical analysis, and finally results were displayed by visual method. Results show significantly that energy for coma patients’ EEG is higher than that for quasi-brain-death patients’ EEG. And the EEG energy data set for quasi-brain-death is relatively more concentrate.</p> Yao Miao Jianting Cao ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-21 2018-03-21 17 1 7140 7145 10.24297/ijct.v17i1.7171 Proposing Parameters for Evaluating Sustainability of mHealth Systems in Developing Countries <p>The exponential rise in global healthcare challenges; the rise in morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries have compelled stakeholders to explore alternative ways of overcoming the crisis. Guided by the recommendation of WHO (2013), efforts have been directed towards prevention, response and strengthening of the existing healthcare systems. There have also been efforts to explore the potential of mobile technology towards healthcare provision, with numerous mHealth projects being reported across the developing world. Reports indicate that a significant number of these solutions have failed before realizing the primary goals, pointing to a possible mHealth sustainability challenge. The study explored literature covering global health challenges, use of mobile technology healthcare solutions in developing countries as well literature covering evaluating technology sustainability. Through the review, key factors that influence sustainability of technology were identified. A cross-sectional survey using questionnaires and a qualitative exploratory study using interviews and Focused Group Discussion, targeting mHealth stakeholders were used to map and contextualize the identified sustainability factors to the developing country context. The identified factors were categorized into three broad categories; Individual factors; User Satisfactions, Access to system, and User Support, Technological Factors; System Quality, System Scalability, Technology Sustainability, Technology Relevance and System Interoperability and Management Factors; mHealth Ownership and Net Benefits (Return on Investment). The paper identifies challenges in the sustainability of mHealth systems in developing countries; using Kenya health sector as a case study and propose sustainability evaluation parameters for mHealth systems in developing countries.</p> Titus Muhambe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-26 2018-03-26 17 1 7153 7162 10.24297/ijct.v17i1.7140 Real Time Shipment Tracking System Using RFID <p>This paper presents a viable system for online shipment tracking using RFID technology. It aims to find the location where exactly it is at an instance of time, from the time of shipment to the time of delivery. The system has a developed web-based database-driven application that facilities its management and provides useful information about the shipment. A complete prototype of the proposed system was implemented and tested to validate the system functionality. The results show that the system is promising for on line shipment tracking.</p> Medhat H A Awadalla ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-26 2018-03-26 17 1 7163 7180 10.24297/ijct.v17i1.7197 Integration of GPS with Digital devices and Interactive objects for public safety. <p><strong>Abstract:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong></p> <p><strong>The paper demonstrated the role of GPS technology in law enforcement and public safety application areas. It presents the design, implementation, testing and verification of a simple, cheap, full proof energy source, user friendly and portable GPS-technology based safety system. The system, called “CARE system” was based on the open data sources and very cheap electronic chips available off the shelf at affordable prices. This proposed system is capable of providing a push button emergency help from different bodies assumed responsible for responding simultaneously by sending an SMS message containing the full information of the emergency location. Typical contents of this message are, the emergency geographic location, the system number, time and the link for displaying the location on an internet interactive map. The system can be fixed on the wall or a fixed stand or table near a patient or disable person. It will be portable to provide service to the moving system user. This is useful for emergencies in general and abduction for ransom and abuse emergencies in particular and demonstrates the system excellent role in law enforcement and public safety areas. The global positioning unit (GPS) integrated in the system provides the location of the user in the form of geographic coordinates, with exact UTC time. All the information delivered to the contacted bodies will be automatically updated whenever the user presses the master button or the contacted body dials the system number. This is facilitated by the GPS unit which receives the coordinates from the satellites for each and every second with time and date. This also, facilitates the moving victim tracking. The system is an excellent contribution to the quality of life improvement for humans in general and old men, women and children in particular.</strong></p> Gar Al-nabi Ibrahim Mohamed Fisal Wahiss Althobiani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-27 2018-03-27 17 1 7146 7152 10.24297/ijct.v17i1.7167 Chaos Baker-based Image Encryption in Operation Modes <p>This research paper study the application of chaos baker map for digital image encryption in different operation modes. The&nbsp; employed modes include the&nbsp; electronic&nbsp; code&nbsp; book (ECB), cipher block chaining (CBC), output feedback chaining (OFB), and cipher feedback chaining (CFB). The proposed method works by applying the chaos baker map in different operation modes for encrypting digital images. A group of&nbsp; tests were carried out to examine the impact of operation modes on chaos baker-based encryption. This is done using several encryption metrics like visual inspection, statistical measures, entropy measure, encryption quality measures, and noise resistance measures. Simulation results demonstrated the effectively of baker-based encryption in CBC mode.</p> Mohammed Alzain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-30 2018-04-30 17 1 7153 7163 10.24297/ijct.v17i1.7328 Development of An Examination Authentication Embedded System Based on Fingerprint Approach <p>Security is crucial all around. Access into institutions, examination centers, organizations or even estates ought to be controlled and closely monitored through a verification system. The method of authenticating a student for an examination has an obvious problem such as presentation of fake clearance card, impersonation and so on and the unethical manner associated with the examination is a grim issue that requires the stakeholders in academic area to seek for alternative means of authenticating student for examination, because the manual paper-based clearance process is fundamentally flawed. Sequel to that, a dependable and effective system is designed to tackle the issues of the convectional technique. The system will verify the understudy using fingerprint biometrics technique and generate a report which can serve as an attendance.</p> Oyediran Mayowa Oyedepo (Member IAENG) Wahab Wajeed Bolanle Elegbede Adedayo Wasiat Enegbe Toye Jolie ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-30 2018-04-30 17 1 7164 7169 10.24297/ijct.v17i1.7205 Load Balancing in Cloud Environment: A Review <p>Cloud computing is the means of accessing a shared pool of configurable computing resources (including hardware, software, networks, servers, storage applications and services) that can be rapidly provided, used and released with minimal effort on the part of users or service providers. But it has some of the main concerns like load management and fault tolerance. In this paper we are discussing load balancing approach in cloud computing. Load balancing is helped to distribute the workload across multiple nodes to ensure that no single node is overloaded. It helps in proper utilization of resources .It also improves the performance of the system This paper focuses on the load balancing algorithm which distributes the incoming jobs among VMs optimally in cloud data centers. In this paper, we have reviewed several existing load balancing mechanisms and we have tried to address the problems associated with them.</p> Sandeep Kaur Parminder Pal Kaur ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-16 2018-01-16 17 1 7179 7185 Demand Forecasting and Demand Supply Management of Vegetables in India: A Review and Prospect <p>Vegetable quantity arrival to market varies every day with which its prices also changes rapidly. This paper analyses the factors that affect the rapid change in prices of vegetables such as demand forecasting, demand supply management, erroneous statistics of vegetables, storage facilities, and supply chain system, etc. Government of India has no control over the production of horticultural and agricultural crops, sometimes under produced and sometimes over produced, which makes demand supply management hard-won. This paper mainly focuses on advantages of demand forecasting and demand supply management of vegetable crops and their effects on farmers and consumers. The Government should find a novel method or a system which gets crop data from farmer, does demand forecasting on day to day basis, control crop acreages, generate accurate statistics and do demand supply management of crops.</p> A Srinivasa Reddy P CHAKRADHAR PAVAN KUMAR P Teja Santosh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-16 2018-05-16 17 1 7170 7178 10.24297/ijct.v17i1.7305