Concept and Dimensions of Web 4.0

  • Fernando Luis Almeida Faculty of Engineering of Oporto University, INESC TEC
Keywords: Web 4.0, Symbiotic Web, Web of Things, Web social computing, Pervasive computing, Ubiquitous computing


Web 4.0 is a new evolution of the Web paradigm based on multiple models, technologies and social relationships. The concept of Web 4.0 is not totally clear and unanimous in literature, because it is composed by several dimensions. In this sense, this study uses a systematic review approach to clarify the concept of Web 4.0 and explore its various dimensions, analyzing if they have elements in common. The findings indicate that the number of studies published from 2009 to 2017 on this field significantly increased, having reached a peak in 2014. Furthermore, we identified five dimensions associated with the Web 4.0 paradigm, in which the terms “pervasive computing†and “ubiquitous computing†are the most widely used in the literature. On the other side, terms such as “Web 4.0â€, “symbiotic Web†and “Web social computing†are not often used.


Hendler, J, and Berners-Lee, T. 2010. From the Semantic Web to social machines: A research challenge for AI on the World Wide Web. Artificial Intelligence, 174, 156-161.

Shadbolt, N., Kleek, M., and Binns, R. 2016. The Rise of Social Machines. IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, April, 106-111.

Bhasker, L. 2013. Pervasive Computing Issues, Challenges and Applications. International Journal of Engineering and Computer Science (IJECS), 2(12), 3337-339.

Shaheed, S., Abbas, J., Shabbir, A., and Khalid, F. 2015. Solving the Challenges of Pervasive Computing. Computer Science & Communications (JCC), 3(9), 41-50.

Davis, M. 2010. Semantics + Gov 2.0 - Where are web 3.0, semantic technologies, and the next internet taking us? Meta 2009. Institute of Metadata Management, Australian National University, Canberra.

Khoo, B. 2010. Rfid- from tracking to the internet of things: A review of developments. In Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Green Computing and Communications, Washington, USA, 533-538.

Perera, C., Zaslavsky, A., Christen, P, and Georgakopoulos, D. 2014. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 16(1), 414-454.

White, B. 2015. Discovering the Future of the Web. Journal of Computing and Information Technology, 23(1), 87-93.

Polanska, K. 2014. Social Media in Modern Business. European Scientific Journal, 1(1), 335-345.

Kambil, A. 2008. What is your Web 5.0 strategy? Journal of Business Strategy, 29(6), 56-58.

Weber, S., and Rech, J. 2010. An overview and differentiation of the evolutionary steps of the Web X.Y movement: The Web before and beyond 2.0. In Murugesan, S. (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Web 2.0, 3.0, and X.0 technologies, business and social applications (pp. 12-38), Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Martínez-Lopez, F., Anaya-Sánchez, R., Aguilar-Illescas, R., and Molinillo, S. 2016. Online Brand Communities. Gewerbestrasse, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Aghaei, S., Nematbakhsh, M., & Farsani, H. 2012. Evolution of the World Wide Web: From WEB 1.0 To WEB 4.0. International Journal of Web & Semantic Technology, 3(1), 1-10.

Bauman, A., and Bachmann, R. 2017. Online Consumer Trust: Trends in Research. Journal of Technology Management & Innovation, 12(2), 68-79.

Choudhury, N. 2014. World Wide Web and Its Journey from Web 1.0 to Web 4.0. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, 5(6), 8096-8100.

Korhonen, J., and Karhu, K. 2011. Explaining the Evolutionary Development of the Web. In E. Gummesson, C. Mele, & F. Polese (Eds.), The 2011 Naples Forum on Service - Service Dominant logic, Network & Systems Theory and Service Science: integrating three perspectives for a new service agenda, Capri, Italy, June 14-17, 2011 Giannini, Napoli.

Parvathi, M., and Mariselvi, R. 2017. A birds eye on the evolution Web 1.0 to Web 5.0: Lib 1.0 to Lib 5.0. International Journal of Advanced Research Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJARTET), 4(4), 167-176.

Nedeva, V., and Dineva, S. 2012. New learning innovations with Web 4.0. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Virtual Learning (ICVL), Bucharest, Romania, 316-321.

Murugesan, S., Rossi, G., Wilbanks, L, and Djavanshir, R. 2011. The Future of Web Apps. IT Pro, September/October, 12-14.

Sołtysik-Piorunkiewicz, A. 2013. The development of mobile Internet technology and ubiquitous communication in a knowledge-based organization. Online Journal of Applied Knowledge Management, 1(1), 29-41.

Nath, K., and Iswary, R. 2015. What comes after Web 3.0? Web 4.0 and the Future. In Proceedings of the International Conference and Communication System (I3CS15), Shillong, India, 337-341.

Provost, F., and Fawcett, T. 2013. Data Science and its Relationship to Big Data and Data-Driven Decision Making. Big Data, 1(1), 51-59.

Henke, N., Bughin, J., Chui, M., Manyika, J., Saleh, T., Wiseman, B., and Sethupathy, G. 2016. The age of analytics: Competing in a data-driven world. McKinsey Global Institute Report, December, 1-136.

Almeida, F. 2017. Benefits, Challenges and Tools of Big Data Management. Journal of Systems Integration, 8(4), 12-20.

Krumova, M., Paunova, L., and Yotova, S. 2017. Open and Linked Data in Business: Disruptive Marketing Mix 3.0. Journal of Management and Innovation, 3(1), 1-19.

Benito-Osorio, D., Peris-Ortiz, M., Armengot, C., and Colino, A. 2013. Web 5.0: the future of emotional competences in higher education. Global Business Perspectives, 1(3), 274-287.

Khanzode, K., and Sarode, R. 2016. Evolution of the World Wide Web: From Web 1.0 to 6.0. International Journal of Digital Library Services, 6(2), 1-11.

Almada-Lobo, F. 2015. The Industry 4.0 revolution and the future of Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES). Journal of Innovation Management, 3(4), 16-21.

Roblek, V., Mesko, M., and Krapez, A. 2016. A Complex View of Industry 4.0. SAGE Open, April-June, 1-11.

Rojko, A. 2017. Industry 4.0 Concept: Background and Overview. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 11(5), 77-90.

Sheladiya, M., Acharya, S., and Acharya, G. 2017. Internet of Things (IoT) “ A Step toward Foundry 4.0. Journal of Web Engineering & Technology, 4(2), 31-34.

Lee, J., Jun, S., Chang, T., and Park, J. 2017. A Smartness Assessment Framework for Smart Factories Using Analytic Network Process. Sustainability, 9(5), 1-15.

Khan, K., Kunz, R., and Kleijnen, J. 2003. Five steps to conducting a systematic review. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine (JRSM), 96(3), 118-121.

Ackermann F., and Eden C. 2010. Strategic Options Development and Analysis. In: Reynolds M., Holwell S. (eds), Systems Approaches to Managing Change: A Practical Guide. Springer, London.

How to Cite
Almeida, F. (2017). Concept and Dimensions of Web 4.0. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS & TECHNOLOGY, 16(7), 7040-7046.