What is a digital object identifier, or DOI?
A digital object identifier is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.
All DOI numbers begin with a 10 and contain a prefix and a suffix separated by a slash. The prefix is a unique number of four or more digits assigned to organizations; the suffix is assigned by the publisher and was designed to be flexible with publisher identification standards.
|Journal Of Advances In Chemistry||10.24297/jac|
|International Journal Of Computers & Technology||10.24297/ijct|
|Journal Of Advances In Mathematics||10.24297/jam|
|Journal Of Advances In Physics||10.24297/jap|
|Journal Of Advances In Biology||10.24297/jab|
|Journal Of Social Science Research||10.24297/jssr|
|Journal Of Advances In Biotechnology||10.24297/jac|
|Journal Of Advances In Linguistics||10.24297/jal|
|International Journal Of Management & Information Technology||10.24297/ijmit|
|International Journal Of Research In Education Methodology||10.24297/ijrem|
|Journal Of Advances In Agriculture||10.24297/jaa|
|International Journal Of Computer & Distributed Systems||10.24297/ijcds|
|Journal Of Advances In Humanities||10.24297/jah|
|Journal Of Advances In Environmental Sciences||10.24297/jes|
|Journal Of Advances In Natural Sciences||10.24297/jns|
|Journal Of Advances In Political Science||10.24297/jps|
|International Journal Of Electronics & Data Communication||10.24297/ijedc|
|International Journal Of Data & Network Security||10.24297/ijedc|
|International Journal Of Networking & Parallel Computing||10.24297/ijnpc|
The DOI System
The DOI system has two main parts (the identifier, and a directory system) and a third logical component, a database.
The DOI, is made up of two components. The first element — the prefix — is assigned to the publisher by a registration agency. Eventually, there may be multiple registration agencies to serve separate geographical regions or for each intellectual property sector (such as text publishing, photographs, music, software, etc.). However, at this stage there is only one registration agency and Directory Manager. Prefixes all begin with 10 to designate the DOI directory manager, followed by a number designating the publisher who will be depositing the individual DOIs, which ensures that a publisher can designate its own DOIs without fear of creating duplicate numbers. Publishers may choose to request a prefix for each imprint or product line, or may use a single prefix.
The second element, following a slash mark, is the suffix. This is the designation assigned by the publisher to the specific content being identified. Many publishers have elected to use recognized existing international standards for their suffixes when such a standard applies to the object being identified (e.g., ISBN for a book), but may alternatively choose to use an internal code. In use, the DOI identifier is an opaque string without intelligent meaning other than as an identifier.
The suffix can follow any system of the publisher’s choosing, and be assigned to objects of any size — book, article, abstract, chart — or any file type — text, audio, video, image or software. An object (book) may have one DOI, and a component within that object (chapter) may have another DOI. The publisher decides the level or “granularity” of identification based on the nature of objects sold and distributed over the Internet. The suffix can be as simple as a sequential number or a publisher’s own internal numbering system.
how it works
The power of the DOI system is its function as a routing or “resolution” system. Because digital content may change ownership or location over the course of its useful life, the DOI system uses a central directory. When a user clicks on a DOI, a message is sent to the central directory where the current web address associated with that DOI appears. This location is sent back to the user’s Internet browser with a special message telling the system to “go to this particular Internet address.”
In a split second the user sees a “response screen” — a Web page — on which the publisher offers the reader either the content itself, or, if not, then further information about the object, and information on how to obtain it. When the object is moved to a new server or the copyright holder sells the product line to another company, one change is recorded in the directory and all subsequent readers will be sent to the new site. The DOI remains reliable and accurate because the link to the associated information or source of the content is so easily and efficiently changed. The underlying technology used in the DOI system is optimised for speed, efficiency, and persistence.
Information about the object identified is maintained by the publisher. However it is planned that the system will also collect some minimum level of associated metadata to enable provision of automated efficient services such as look-up from bibliographic data, citation linking, and so forth. Thus information about the object identified (metadata) might be distributed over several databases. It might include the actual content or the information on where and how to obtain the content or other related data. From these database systems is generated the information that the user has access to in response to a DOI query, forming the third component of the DOI system.
The DOI can also serve as an agent. In the future, will also be used to automate transactions. The DOI is being further developed to incorporate functionality which could enable the user to associate a function.