Login or Register to make a submission.

Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • This submission is an original work, free from any form of plagiarism (text, data, and figures).
  • This submission has not been previously published, nor is it under consideration by another journal.
  • This submission has been approved for publication by all co-authors and relevant authorities (e.g. an institution or sponsor).
  • The submission, which includes all supplemental files (image files, tables file, captions file, and references in .bib), has been formatted and prepared in accordance with the submission guidelines.
  • The manuscript has been (to the best of the authors’ abilities) written in good English and is free of grammatical errors. It has been checked with a proofreading tool (e.g. Grammarly) and, if possible, proofed by a language editor.
  • The authors comply with the ethical standards as outlined in the Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement.

Author Guidelines

The author read carefully all guidelines and are requested to submit their papers electronically by using the online submission, review and production system.

Avoid Paper Rejection

As an excellent writer/author in your field, you deserve to be published without being rejected; 

  1. Make sure your research title describes (a) the topic, (b) the method, (c) the sample, and (d) the results of your study
  2. The abstract should be self-contained, citation-free, and should not exceed 200 words. An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, thesis, review, conference proceeding, or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpose.
  3. Authors format your paper according to the standard of the journal manuscript template of the journal include bibliographic and formatting standards alongside examples of common citation formats to be used in submissions.
  4. Remove the plagiarism.
  5. The length of the article should be appropriate.
  6. Review spelling and grammatical errors.
  7. Add conflicts of interest, author biography, and cover letter.
  8. Add the appropriate number of references in the proper format.

This Video will guide authors step-wise through the online submission process.



Title. Use a concise and informative title in sentence case, with a maximum of 16 words.

Affiliation. Provide the full postal address of each author's affiliation, including the street name and number, city, ZIP code, and country.

Abstract. It should consist of a single paragraph of no more than 200 words. Provide the background and objective of the paper (including its originality), its principal results, and its conclusions. Avoid using abbreviations and citations.

Keywords. Include a maximum of five keywords or phrases, arranged alphabetically and separated using semicolons (;). Use specific, relevant terms that do not appear in the title, so that the article is easier to find in search engines. Do not use terms that are too general or too long.

Introduction. This section should briefly explain the background of the study, provide a short review of the pertinent literature, state the originality of the research, and state the research objectives.

Materials and methods. Combine the materials and methods used in one narrative passage. Enough information should be provided to enable the repetition of the research. For commercial sources of the materials, the name of the company, and the town and country in which they are located should be indicated. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference, with only the relevant modifications described here; e.g. "Powder solubility was evaluated according to the method proposed by Smith (2000), with modifications. In the case of this study, powders were stirred in 25 mL of distilled water for 5 min using a blender."; or "The powder solubility test followed the method of Smith (2000), with modifications in water volume. Powders were stirred in 25 mL of distilled water for 5 min using a blender."

Results. Describe the outcome of the study. Data should be presented as concisely as possible, and in the form of tables or figures if appropriate, although very large tables should be avoided. If needed, this section can be combined with the Discussion section into the Results and discussion section.

Discussion. This section should be an interpretation of the results of the work (not a repetition of them) in the context of previous research. Avoid excessive referencing of published literature. If needed, this section can be combined with the Results section into a Results and discussion section.

Conclusions. The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a standalone Conclusions section or included as a subsection of the Discussion section.

Acknowledgments. Acknowledge anyone who contributed to the research, as well as any funding or grants received in support of it. The names of funding organizations should be written in full, along with the grant numbers, if available. List any individuals who helped you during the study (e.g. assistance with study design or analysis, or guidance through a study area), or writing of the article (e.g. providing advice on the language, editing, or proofreading the article).

Authors’ contributions. List the details of each author’s contribution to the research and manuscript. Authorship should be restricted to those who have contributed significantly to the work by either: conceiving or designing the study, contributing new methods or models, performing research, analyzing data, or writing the paper. Use the author’s initials to indicate their names; e.g. "DS, PK designed the study. DS, PK, BTF, GH carried out the laboratory work. DS, BTF, GH, MJ, DW analyzed the data. PK, BTF, GH, MJ, DW wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript."

Competing interests. Declare any competing interests, such as any financial, professional, or personal relationships that are relevant to the submitted work. This can include the name of a funding source and a description of their role in the design of the study, data collection and analysis, writing of the article, and/or decision to submit the manuscript to JBT; whether they serve or have previously served on JBT’s editorial board; and/or whether they work or have worked for an organization that may benefit from the publication of the article.

References. Authors should format in proper style. Authors are responsible for ensuring that the information in each reference is complete and accurate. All references should be numbered consecutively in the order of their first citation. Citations of references in the text should be identified using numbers in square brackets e.g., “as discussed by Smith [9]”; “as discussed elsewhere [9, 10]”. All references should be cited within the text and uncited references will be removed.


Please note that JBT's editors have the right to change an article's formatting to adhere to the journal’s style or maintain consistency.

Headings. Use no more than three levels of headings (e.g. 2, 2.1, and 2.1.1, but no

Abbreviations. Abbreviations should be given at the first instance of the full term and used consistently thereafter.

Species scientific names. Binomial names with an authority should be given in full in the title and the first time the species is mentioned in the text. Thereafter, either the vernacular or common name of the species or the shortened scientific name (e.g. S. aureusS. macrophylla) may be used, but not a mixture of both.

Figures and tables

  • Figure size and quality. When preparing your figures, size them to fit in a column width (either 80 mm or 170 mm), with a maximum height of 230 mm. Ensure that images are of sufficiently high resolution to be easily viewable (minimum of 300 dpi).
  • Image format. Send images in an image file format (png, jpeg, tiff), vector (eps, SVG), or pdf. Do not send them in a PowerPoint presentation format.
  • Graphs. Graphs created with Microsoft Excel should also be sent in their original Excel file. Present graphs in 2D (not 3D), without shadows or other effects, and without gridlines.
  • Table size. Size tables to fit in a column width (either 80 mm or 170 mm), with a maximum height of 230 mm. Use only horizontal lines for borders.
  • Table and figure numbering. Every table and figure should be cited in the text in numerical order using Arabic numerals (i.e. Figure 2 cannot be cited before Figure 1). Tables should be referred to as "Table" and figures as "Figure" (not "Fig."). Place table footnotes below the table, indicating them with superscripted lowercase letters or asterisks (for significance values and other statistical data). Denote figure parts with lowercase letters (e.g. Figure 1a, Figure 1b).
  • Table and figure captions. Every table and figure should have a title or caption, which should be concise but clear enough to explain its main components independently from the text. If the table or figure contains previously published material, cite the original source at the end of the caption. If the results are expressed as a percentage, state the absolute value(s) that correspond to 100%. State in the caption if a figure has been altered or enhanced in any way.
  • Figure formatting. Photographs must have internal scale markers and symbols, and arrows or letters should contrast greatly with the background. Lato is the recommended typeface for text within figures (download it here). Otherwise, a sans-serif such as Open Sans, Helvetica, or Arial may be used. Where photographs of gel, autoradiograms, and so on have been processed to enhance their quality, this should be stated. The costs of color printing will be incurred by the author.
  • Files submission. Submit every figure as a separate file, and all tables in one separate file. You should also provide the captions to tables and figures in a separate text file. For example, if your manuscript contains four figures and three tables, then you will have seven files to submit: 1 manuscript file, 4 figure files, 1 table file, and 1 caption file.
  • File naming. Name your figure files "Figure" with the figure number; e.g. Figure1.jpeg. Name your tables file "Tables"; e.g. Tables.docx or Tables.xlsx.

Italicization. Words of non-English origin should be italicized, except for terms that are widely used in the English language; e.g. kayu manis and zimt, but in vitro and vice versa. Do not italicize words for emphasis.

Numbers. Spell out numbers of less than two digits (i.e. eight, nine, 10, 11), except when using them in a technical context or to present data, such as in the materials and methods or results. Spell out “percent” in text, and do not use the symbol (%), except in tables or figures or when presenting materials (e.g. 70% ethanol).

Units of measurement. In general, JBT adheres to the International System of Units (SI) for how units of measurement are written, with several deviations to remain consistent with the journal's historical usage. The rules for the most common units are as follows:

Unit Example      Note
Temperature    30°C No space after the number
Volume mL, L Capital L for liter
Time d day(s)
  h hour(s)
  min minute(s)
  s second(s)







Authors whose first language is not English (and many times even those for whom it is) will greatly increase the chance of their article being published if it is checked by a language editor or native speaker prior to its submission. A well-written manuscript enables editors and reviewers to accurately assess the content of the manuscript, thus accelerating the reviewing process. It also ensures that the scientific merit of the research can be fully conveyed to readers.


Author(s) can use the following checklist when preparing their submission.

Files to send

  • Cover letter (in doc, Docx, rtf, or pdf format).
  • Manuscript file (in doc, Docx, rtf, or pdf format).
  • Images (png, jpeg, tiff, eps, svg, pdf; at least 300 dpi); one figure per file.
  • Tables file (put all tables into one file).
  • Captions file (put all captions for figures and tables into one file).
  • References file in BibTeX format (.bib).

General formatting

  • 40006000 words in length (excluding tables, captions, and references).
  • Either British or American English spelling, not a mixture of both.
  • Standard 10pt Segoe UI font; double-spaced.


Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.