Structure analysis and enhancement of creep resistance and thermal properties of eutectic Sn-Ag lead free solder alloy by Ti and Cd - addition

  • Amal Mohamed Yassin Ain Shams University
  • Berlent Abd El Hamed Khalifa, B.A.Khalifa Ain Shams University
  • Reda Afify Ismail, Dr. Ain Shams University
Keywords: solder, creep, X-ray, DTA, SnAg, SEM

Abstract

Eutectic (Sn-3.5wt.%Ag) solder alloy is used in electronic circuits in which the creep property of the solder joints is essential for their applications. The study of creep, structure and thermal properties of three solder alloys (Sn-3.5wt.%Ag,Sn-3.5wt.%Ag-0.27wt.%Ti and Sn-3.5wt.Ag-0.27wt.%Cd) is characterized by the presence of (Ag3Sn-IMC) beside the phase (β-Sn). The microstructure parameters obtained from the X-ray analysis represented by, lattice parameters (a, c), the axial ratio (c/a), the residual strains (Δa/a0, Δc/c0) and peak height intensities (hkl) of some crystallographic planes are given. All parameters were found to be sensitive to the additions of (Ti or Cd), applied stresses and working temperatures in the range (298-373K).The crystallite size of the (211) reflection was found to increase from (61-132nm) with the additions and to decrease from (115-79nm) with the working temperatures. The morphological studies show a remarkable decrease in the size of (β-Sn) grains with the addition of (Cd) content which confirms the X-ray data. The obtained results show a decrease in melting temperature with the additions. The creep properties are notably improved by the addition of either (Ti) or (Cd). In order to reveal the creep characteristics such as stress exponent (n) and activation energy (Q), the tensile creep tests were performed within the temperature range (298-373K) at constant applied stress (17.27MPa). Based on the obtained stress exponents and activation energies, it is explained that the dominant deformation mechanism is dislocation climb over all temperature range.

 

Author Biographies

Berlent Abd El Hamed Khalifa, B.A.Khalifa, Ain Shams University

Physics, department, Faculty of Scince, Ain Shams University

Reda Afify Ismail, Dr., Ain Shams University

Physics department , Faculty of Scince-Ain Shams university

References

1. Ph.D. Thesis by Reda Afify Ismail, "Structural, Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Some Binary Alloys", Ain Shams Univ. (2002).
2. G.S. Al-Genainy, M.R. Nagy, B.A. Khalifa, R Afify, "Creep and Structural Parameters near the transformation temperature of Sn-1wt. % Pb alloy", Egyp. J. Phys. 25, 1, (2002), 57-70.
3. B.A. Khalifa, M.R. Nagy and R. Afify, "Effect of transformation temperatures on the electrical resistivity and structural properties of Sn-1wt. % Pb alloy using electron diffraction technique", AMSE periodical Modelling, (A), 77, (2004), 37-43.
4. K.Kawashima, T.Ito and M.Sakuragi, "Strain-rate and temperature-dependent stress-strain curves of Sn-Pb eutectic alloy", J. Matter. Sci., 27, (1992), 6387-6390.
5. HR. Kotadia, O. Mokhtari, MP. Clode, MA. Green, SH. Mannan, "Intermetallic compound growth suppression at high temperature in SAC solders with Zn addition on Cu and Ni-P substrates", J. Alloy Compd. 511 (2012) 176-188.
6. SY. Chang, CC. Jain, TH. Chuang, LP. Feng, LC. Tsao, "Effect of addition of TiO2 nanoparticles on the microstructure, microhardness and interfacial reactions of Sn3.5AgXCu solder", Mater. Des. 32 (2011) 4720-4727.
7. ASM International, Electronic Material Handbook, 1 Materials Park, OH, (1989) 965-966.
8. E.P. Wood, K.L. Nimmo, "In search of new lead-free electronic solders", J. Electron. Mater. 23 (8) (1994) 709-713.
9. C.L. Chuang, L.C. Tsao, H.K. Lin, L.P. Feng, "Effects of small amount of Ti element additions on microstructure and property of Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu solder", Materials Science & Engineering A 558 (2012) 478-484.
10. AA. El-Daly, A. Fawzy, AZ. Mohamed and AM. El-Taher, "Micorstructrural evolution and tensile properties of Sn-5Sb solder alloy containing small amount of Ag and Cu", J. Alloy Compd. 509 (2011) 4574-4582.
11. A.Yassin, E.Gomaa, "The of microstructure and creep properties of Cu-doped Sn-4wt%Ag and Sn-9wt%Zn lead free solders with annealing temperature", Physics Journal ,1, (2015), 163- 172.
12. M.L. Hung, and L. Wang, "Effects of Cu, Bi and In on microstructure & tensile properties of Sn-Ag-X(Cu, Bi, In solders", Metall. Matter. Trans. A 36 (2005) 1439-1446.
13. L.P.Lehman, S.N. Athavale, T.Z. Fullem, A.C. Gianmis, R.K. Kinyanjui, M.Lowenstein, K. Mather, R. Patel, D. Raw, J. Wang, X. Xing, L. Zavalij, P. Borgesen and E. J. Cotts, " Growth of Sn and intermetallic compounds in Sn-Ag-Cu solder", J. Electron. Mat's, 33(12) (2004) 1429-1439.
14. S.K. Kang, W.K. Choi, D.Y. Shih, D.W. Henderson, T. Gosselin, A. Sarkhel, C. Goldsmith, K.J. Puttlitz, "Ag3Sn plate formation in the solidification of near ternary eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu alloys", J. the minerals, metals and materials (JOM) 55 (2003) 61- 65.
15. K.S. Kim, S.H. Huh, K. Suganuma, "Effects of forth alloying additive on microstructurs and tensile properties of Sn-Ag-Cu alloy and joints with Cu", Microelectron. Reliab. 43 (2003) 259-267.
16. M. Wang, J. Wang, H. Feng, W.Ke, "Effect of Ag3Sn inetermetallic compounds on corrosion of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder under high temperature & high humidity condition", Corros, Sci. 63 (2012) 20-28.
17. M.L. Huang, L. Wang and C.M.L. Wu, "Creep behavior of eutectic Sn-Ag lead-free solder alloy", J. of Mater. Research 17 Issue 11 (2002) 2897-2903.
18. F. Lin, W.Bi, G. Ju, W.Wang, X.Wei, "Evolution of Ag3Sn at Sn-3.0Ag-0.3Cu-0.05Cr/Cu joint interfaces during thermal aging", J. Alloy Compd., 509 (2011) 6666-6672.
19. A. Abtew, G. Selvaduray, "Lead-free solders in microelectronics", Mater, Sci. Eng. Rep. 27(5-6) (2000) 95-141.
20. I.E. Anderson, J.C. Foley, B.A. Cook, J. Harringa, R.L. Terpstra, O.Unal, "Alloying effects in near-eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloys for improved microstrctural stability", J. electron. Mater. 30 (9) (2001) 1050-1059.
21. M. McCormack, S. Jin, G.W. Kammlott, H.S. Chen, "New Pb-free solder alloy with superior mechanical properties", Appl. Phys. Lett.63 (1) (1993) 15-17.
22. A.Z. Miric and A. Grusd, "Lead-free alloys", Soldering Surf. Mount Technol. 10 (1) (1998) 19-25.
23. ICdA International Cadmium Association.[ http://www.cadmium.org/cadmium-applications/cadmium-in-alloys]
24. Mustafa Kamal, Abu Bakr El-Bediwi, and Tarek El-Ashram, "The effect of rapid solidification on the structure, decomposition behavior, electrical and mechanical properties of the Sn-Cd binary alloys", J. of Mater Science: Materials in Electronics 15 (2004) 211-217.
25. A.E. Hammad, "Investigation of microstructure and mechanical properties of novel Sn-0.5Ag-0.7Cu solders containing small amount of Ni", Materials and design 50 (2013) 108-116.
26. A.A. El-Daly, A.Z. Mohamed, A. Fawzy and A.M. El-Taher, "Creep behavior of near peritectic Sn-5Sb solders containing small amount of Ag and Cu", Mater. Sci. Eng. A 528 (2011) 1055-1062.
27. A.A. El-Daly, A.E. Hammad "Enhancement of creep resistance and thermal behavior of eutectic Sn-Cu lead- free solder alloy by Ag and In-additions", Materials and Design 40 (2012) 292-298.
28. A.A. El-Daly, "Tensile properties of Pb-Sn bearing alloy containing small amount of Sb", Phys. Stat. Sol. A 201 (2004) 2035-2041.
29. D. Witkin, "Creep behavior of Bi- containing lead free solder alloy", J. Electron Mater .41 (2) (2012) 190-203.
30. M.T. Nawar, B.A. khalifa, G.S. Al-Ganainy, and A.W. Shalaby, "Crystallinity, crystallite size and some physical properties of two fiber maturity levels in some Egyptian cotton cultivars", Egyp. J. Sol.18,(1), (1995) 61-73.
31. N. Barakat, B.A. Khalifa, F. Sharaf and A. El-Bahy, "X-ray diffraction studies of ɣ- irradiated Nylon 6 (Polycapramide) fibers", Egyp. J. Phys. 15 (2), (1984) 237-246.
32. P.Babaghorbani, S.M.L. Nai, M. Gupta, "Development of lead free Sn-3.5Ag/SnO2 nanocomposite solder" Journal of Material Science, Mater Electron 20 (2009) 571-576.
33. A .Haseeb, M.M. Arafat, and M.R. Johan, "Stability of Molybdenum nanoparticles Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder during multiple reflow and their influence on interfacial intermetallic compounds", Journal of Materials Characterization 64 (2012) 27-35.
34. A.A .El-Daly, A.E. Hammad, G.S. Al-Ganainy, and M. Ragab, "Properties enhancement of low Ag-content Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solders containing small amount of Zn", Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 614 (2014) 20-28.
35. A.A. El-Daly, A.E. Hammad, G.S. Al-Ganainy, and A.A. Ibrahiem, "Design of lead-free candidate alloys for low- temperature soldering application based on the hypoeutectic Sn-6.5Zn alloys", Materials and Design 56 (2014) 594-603.
Published
2017-10-01
Section
Articles