JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN LINGUISTICS http://cirworld.com/index.php/jal An open access, scholarly, online, peer-reviewed, monthly, fully refereed International journal. CIRWORLD en-US JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN LINGUISTICS 2348-3024 <p><a title="Copyright Notice" href="https://cirworld.com/cir/copyright-notice/" target="_blank">Copyright Notice</a></p> A Study of Gender Discourse in Zoya Pirzad Novels http://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/6025 <p>In this article, two novels by Zoya Pirzad has been investigated considering Fairclough Critical Discourse Analysis. This article is trying to show how ideology and power of male-characters have influenced on female-characters in these novels. This paper shows that male’s patriarchal dialogues that are influenced by society, law and ideology put female characters in challenge and pushes aside their dialogues. This paper has investigated the influence of tradition, culture, and ideology on family life and particularly on people’s linguistic interactions from gender point of view. It has been found that the dominant discourse is patriarchal and most of novel females are passive. The research method in this article is analytical and analysis unit is sentences and dialogues of Zoya Pirzad’s&nbsp; two novels.</p> Dr. Foroogh Kazemi Shohreh Dalaee ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-04-19 2017-04-19 8 1 1225 1228 10.24297/jal.v8i1.6025 Word Order of Noun and Verb Phrases in Contemporary Persian and English Poems http://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/6216 <p>Literature is a system of semantic markers which convey emotions as well. Sentences in literary texts, particularly poetic ones, are not merely a medium to convey a message. In literary language, there is not a one to one correspondence between words and their meaning. That is in literary texts, the words and consequently sentences do not have their common dictionary meaning. Rather, in many cases, they include the writer’s or poet’s intended meaning. For writers and poets, words are not simply means of conveying a message, but a scheme to create beauty and novel innovations. The poets to make more impression on their addressees usually create uncommon sentences in the language. To express their feelings and thoughts, they invert the poem’s internal word order or sort out the structural system of their poetic sentences counter to standard language. By creating “marked” words or sentences, they actually seek to communicate their audience artistically and innovatively. “Sentence” is the poets’ main instrument that according to traditional grammar’s definition consists of two parts: subject and predicate. However, in modern linguistics “sentence” is a set of noun and verb phrases that are joined together as a harmonious whole. Each of noun or verb phrases has a unique structure so that their internal order cannot be changed; however, poets make their utterance poetic by inverting these groups to create greater influence.</p> <p>By using “content analysis” method, an attempt is made in this article to analyze the internal orders of noun and verb phrases in contemporary poems.</p> <p>The author gratefully acknowledge the financial and other support of this research, provided by the Islamic Azad University. eslamshahr Branch, Tehran ,Iran</p> Saloome Rostampour ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-07-08 2017-07-08 8 1 1229 1235 10.24297/jal.v8i1.6216 Listening Metacognitive Awareness http://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/6353 <p>Closely connected with other language skills, listening plays an essential role in language acquisition that is why perception of authentic speech is one of the most important aspects of language teaching and development of learners’ listening strategies is substantial in language teaching.&nbsp; In this paper, we examine French and English literature on this topic. We conduct our study by means of a questionnaire among 21 Chinese and 21 Russian university students who achieved at least Intermediate level in French L2. The data analysis allows us to show how difficult listening is for the students and also to demonstrate which metacognitive listening strategies they use. Finally, we draw some trends in L2 listening among interviewed Chinese and Russian students.</p> Hsin-I LEE Irina Mukhlynina ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-10-03 2017-10-03 8 1 1236 1246 10.24297/jal.v8i1.6353 Explicit Language Teaching and Competence in Using the Past Tense in English Among Saudi EFL Learners http://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/6341 <p>It has been well-established in research that Saudi Arabian EFL students tend to find it difficult to understand English tenses. In particular, they struggle with conjugating verbs in the past tense. This research examines how explicit grammar teaching could help undergraduate level Saudi students overcome these difficulties. For the study, students were put into two different groups. These were the experimental group (group A) and the control group (group B). Group A students were given direct, specific teaching focused on learning the past-tense. Group B students were given more general teaching. At the end of the study, they were tested. The results of these tests demonstrate a definite short-term improvement in the ability of group A students, but later testing indicates that this improvement may have been short-lived.</p> Sami Alanazi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-10-21 2017-10-21 8 1 1247 1250 10.24297/jal.v8i1.6341 Stylistic Analysis of the poem"Leisure" By William Davies http://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/6380 <p>The researcher has tried to highlight the dilemma of modern man described in the poem<br>“leisure”by William Davies. Modern man is so much engrossed in getting and spending that<br>he has no time to see and enjoy the beauty of nature. Nature is present everywhere in its full<br>bloom and splendour but modern man is so much pre-occupied with worldly pursuits and<br>materialistic designs that he has no time to see and enjoy the beauty manifested in various<br>forms. The natural elements present an invitation to man but a modern man,being busy in rat<br>race,refuses their invitation. He has declared blunt refusal to his aesthetic sense and replaced it<br>with lust for money and other worldly designs. Even animals are much better than man because<br>they live in the heart of nature and enjoy its company. God has, no doubt,created man to<br>explore the nature and praise its beauty but modern man has made himself slave of time and<br>gives preference to his evil designs instead of thinking and brooding upon nature and its<br>blessed beauty.</p> Shaheen Akhter ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-10-25 2017-10-25 8 1 1251 1254 10.24297/jal.v8i1.6380 Conceptualization of Persian Relative Structure in Cognitive Grammar http://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/6406 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>In the cognitive approach to linguistics, language is considered as a part of the cognitive system which mirrors the conceptual organization as well as the world within the speakers' mind. According to this view, the outside world experience is reflected in the language structure and language forms. This modern approach includes a variety of principles, perspectives, assumptions and models, among which the Cognitive Grammar Model is recognized as the most noticeable one. This grammar considers a symbolic nature for a language which symbolizes the meaning and thought. On the other hand, relativization as a notion in every individual's mind and cognition is considered as a universal manifested in all languages. Thus, the present research &nbsp;&nbsp;tries to clarify the conceptualization and symbolization of Persian relative structure from the cognitive point of view and by the use of cognitive means. It, also studies different types of relative structures in Persian, on the basis of Langacker (2008) model and differentiates the restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses in Persian. The methodology used in the analysis of this research is the descriptive-analytical methodology. For the data collection, the corpus methodology is used and examples of Persian relative structures are studied. The present research findings show that Persian conceptualization of the relative structures can be clarified in the cognitive approach and Persian relative structures can be studied on the basis of Langacker model.</p> Sahel Khoshbakht Arsalan Golfam Alie Kord Zaferanloo Kamboozia Ferdows Aghagolzadeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-11-10 2017-11-10 8 1 1255 1267 10.24297/jal.v8i1.6406 Investigating the Application and Distribution of Metadiscourse Features in Research Articles in Applied Linguistics between English Native Writers and Iranian Writers: A Comparative Corpus-based Inquiry http://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/6441 <p>Metadiscourse features are the elements that can show the presence of writer(s) in the writing process. &nbsp;The main objective of the present study was to run a quantitative corpus-based study on the way metadiscourse features (elements) were used by English native writers and Iranian non-native writers in the field of Applied Linguistics. To this end, 29 articles in the field of Applied Linguistics written by native speakers of English and Iranian non- native speakers of English were randomly selected; compiling together a corpus of 173839 words. Also, for the raw data and corpus analysis, the Sketch engine software was exploited by the researcher. The results of the study couldreveal the fact that in overall, writers of both corpora made use of interactive metadiscourse features more than interactional metadiscourse ones and that the texts written by native speakers enjoyed more metadiscourse markers compared to texts written by Iranian non-native speakers.</p> Mehrdad Vasheghani Farahani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-11-17 2017-11-17 8 1 1268 1285 10.24297/jal.v8i1.6441 Glory Style in Mandar Song Lyrics: A study of Mandar Tribe in South Sulawesi, Indonesia http://cirworld.com/index.php/jal/article/view/6430 <p>This research background of how the style of language in the lyrics of Mandar song because of today many of the Mandar song lovers who lack understanding of the meaning that is in the lyrics Mandar song. The purpose of this research was to describe the fact of lyrics and identify the style of language in the lyrics of the song Mandar. This research applied descriptive qualitative research method. Descriptive research was a research procedure that produces descriptive data in the form of written words about the nature of individuals, circumstances, symptoms of certain groups that can be observed. The study, which began in September 2015 to January 2016, was unbound by space. In this study, it was found that the most commonly used hyperbola, asonation, and repetition style. Concluding remarks of the study were 174 lyric styles consisting of 8 personatic language styles, 6 metaphorical language styles, 7 simile / comparison language styles, 10 depersonative language styles, hyperbolic language styles, 7 parallelism languages, 4 style alliteration, 109 asonance and 17 repetition language styles.</p> Mutmainnah . Sulihin Azis Ulfa Maulidya Andi Asrifan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-11-17 2017-11-17 8 1 1286 1291 10.24297/jal.v8i1.6430