Study of the Effects of Frequency on the Compression Process in Old and New Persian Dialogues in the Bybee Phonological Framework
The purpose of this research is an analytical analysis of the compression process (including deletion and merging) in old cinematic films compared to new cinematic films in Persian language. The old cinematic films selected for this study include two films, "Kaiser" and "Treasure of the Qaroon," and new cinematic films that examine two films," Life+1 Day "and “Lottery.” The theoretical framework has been used in Cognitive Phonology, Bybee (1999). The method of the present study is descriptive-analytical, and data collection is in library method. All the data has been pulled out from the dialouge of films, which been examined the compression process in the old and new films separately. In this research, we first examine the Utterance and discourse of the intended films in detail. At the end of the work, the elements of the Persian language are analyzed. The results indicate that the compression process in Persian language films has been araised, and in cases where more compressions have been done, their frequency has been higher. That is, in " Life+1 Day and “Lottery’s film, there are more compression processes than "Kaiser" and Treasure of the Qaroon’s film. The fact that the two categories of nouns and verbs are part of the basic entity of a phrase, such that if these categories are frequent then they are compressed or eliminated. On the other hand, the presence of an adjective, adverb, or letter to describe the replacement of noun or verb in the conceptual connection, which is sufficient to represent them, and this will support with Bybee's view point. So the compression, deleting or merging processes in data has shown less frequently.
Alderete, J. & Tupper, P. (2018). Connectionist approaches to generative phonology. The Routledge handbook of phonological theory.
Bybee, B. (2010). Language, Usage, and Cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bybee, B. (2004). Phonology and Language Use (third ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bybee, B. & Hopper, P. (2001). Introduction to frequency and Emergence of Linguistic Structure (pp.1-26). Amesterdam-Philadelphia: John Benjamin B.V.
Bybee, B. (1999). Usage-based phonology (pp.211-242). The University of New Mexico.
Evans, V., & Green, M. (2006). Cognitive linguistics: An introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburg University Press Ltd.
Field, J. (2004). Psycholinguistics: The key concepts. London: Routledge.
Fowler, C. A. & Housum J. (1987). Talkers' signaling of "new" and "old" words in speech and listeners' perception and use of the distinction. Journal of Memory and Language, 26, 489--504.
Hayes, B. (1989). Introductory Phonology. Blackwell Publishing.
Hicky, R. (2014). Phonological change in English. The Cambridge Handbook of English Historical Linguistics Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kahn, D. (1976). Syllable-based generalizations in English phonology. Ph.D. thesis, MIT. Published by Garland, New York, 1980.
Kambuziya, A. (2018). Phonology: Rule-Based Approaches & their Applications in Persian. Samt publishing.
Kristiansen, G. (2003). How to Do Things with Allophones. In R.F.Rene Dirven, Cognitive Model in Language and Thought, Ideology, Metapher, and Meaning (pp. 69-120). Berlin: Mouton Degruyter.
Kristiansen, G.( 2006). Towards a usage-based cognitive phonology. International Journal of English studies, 6 (2), 107-140.
Kwon, H. (2017). Language experience, speech perception, and loanword adaption: variable adaption of English word-final plosive into Korean (pp. 1-19). Elsevier.
Lahiri, A, Wilson, M., (1991). Form a phonological approach to the recognition lexicon. NCBI.
Lackoff, G. (1989). Cognitive Phonology. The Berkeley Conference on Nonderivational Phonology. Berkeley: University of California at Berkeley.
Langacker, R. (2008). Cognitive grammar: A basic introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Langacker, R. (1999). Assessing the cognitive linguistics enterprise. In T.Janssen,& G.Redeker, Cognitive Linguistics: Foundations, Scope, and Methodology (pp. 13-60). Berline: Mouton De Gruyter.
Langacker, R. (1988). A usage-based model. Topics in cognitive linguistics (Current Issues in Linguistic Theory) (pp. 61-127). Amesterdam: John Benjamins.
Lee, D. (2001). Cognitive linguistics: An introduction. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Mikaiili, F., Farahani, M.N. (2005). Studying Phonological Processing Model for Students Normal and Dyslexic Boy of Primary School. Research on Exceptional Children, Winter 2006, Vol.18, No. 4,379-416.
Moeng, E., Boehm, J., Reynolds, A. (2015). Modeling the interlanguage: The effect of frequency in the L2 acquisition of English consonant clusters. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences.
Mücke, D., Hermes, A., Cho, T. (2017). Mechanisim of regulation in speech: Linguistic structure and physical control system.
Munson, B. (2010). Level of phonological abstraction and socially motivated speech-sound variation. (pp. 157-177). The University of Minnesota.
Nathan, G.S. (1996). Step towards cognitive phonology. In B. Hurch, & R. A. Rhodes, Natural phonology: The State of Art (pp. 107-120). Berlin: Mouton De Greuyter.
Occhino, C. (2016). A cognitive approach to phonology-evidence from signed and spoken languages. Rochester Institue of Technology-Center Cognition and Language.
Redford, M., Oh, G. (2017). The representation and execution of articulatory timing in first and second language acquisition. Elsevier.
Richtsmeier, P., Goffman, L. (2017). Perceptual statistical learning over one week in child speech Production (pp. 70-80). Elsevier.
Rosen, R. (2004). Beginning L2 production errors in ASL lexical phonology- A cognitive phonology (pp. 31-61). John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Safaie-Qalati, Mehdi. (2013). A Study of Compensatory Lengthening in Persian through a Usage-based Cognitive Approach: Exploring the Possibility of a Mono-stratal Model of Phonology (Ph.D.’s thesis). Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
Skipper, J., Devlin, J., Lametti, D. (2017). The hearing ear is always found close to the speaking tongue: Review of the role of the motor system in speech perception (pp. 77-105). Elsevier.
Stillings, N.A., Weisler, S.E., Chase, C.H., Feinstein, M.H., Garfield, J.L., & Rissland E.L. (1995). Cognitive science: An introduction (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Taylor, J.R. (2002). Cognitive Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Thayer Jensen, J. (2004). Principles of Generative Phonology: An Introduction(pp.217-251). John Benjamins Publishing.
Treiman, R. (2017). Learning to spell-phonology and beyond. Cognitive neuropsychology Washington University.
Yang, J., Fox, R. (2017). L1–L2 interactions of vowel systems in young bilingual Mandarin-English children. Elsevier.
Copyright (c) 2019 Razieh Kashefi Khishan, Maryam Iraji
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.