The Semantic Comprehension of Persian Endocentric and Exocentric Compounds in non-Persian Speakers
Semantic comprehension of Persian compound nouns in non-Persian speakers of TPSL department was investigated using a cognitive-semantics approach. Regarding the semantic relationships between the bases of compound nouns, two were selected based on presence or lack of semantic head. Then, sufficient data were collected from different texts through a desk research method to make a frequency dictionary of endocentric and exocentric compound nouns based on the knowledge level of students. A definition-word pairing test was then selected and most frequent compound nouns (24 compound nouns) were identified and used for the test, developed and run in the form of an application for smart phones by an application developer and participants were provided with it. Overall, 888 data were collected from the test results and analyzed using standard statistical tests suggesting that due to presence of semantic head in endocentric compounds, speed and level of comprehending them was higher than exocentric compounds; moreover, a correlational relationship between comprehension of these compounds was identified. Therefore, the relationship between components of endocentric compounds was understood faster than exocentric compounds. Thus, applicability of CARIN theory was verified.
2. Anvari, H. (2003). Sokhan Compact Dictionary. Tehran: Sokhan Publication.
3. Badakhshan, E. & Judaki, F (2011). Semantic Transparency and Opacity in Compound Nouns (Non-verbal element and present stem). Quarterly Scientific-Research Journal of Persian Language and Literature. School of Foreign Languages and Literature, Islamic Azad University of Sanandaj, the 3rd year, No. 8.
4. Bauer, L. (1993). English Word Formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
5. Benczes, R. (2013). On the non-viability of the endocentric–exocentric distinction: Evidence from linguistic creativity. EXELL (Explorations in English Language and Linguistics. 1.1 (2013): 3-18.
6. Gagne, C. L. & Shoben E. J. (1997). The Influence of Thematic Relations on the Comprehension of modifier–noun combinations, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, No. 23
7. Gagne, C. L & Spalding T. L. (2004). Effect of relation availability on the interpretation and access of familiar noun–noun compounds. Brain and Language 90 (2004) 478–486.
Haspelmath, M. (2002). Understanding Morphology. London: Arnold. 8.
9. Karimi Doostan, Q. and Vahid, A. (2013). Semantic Analysis of Noun- Noun Compounds in Persian Language. Linguistics Research, the 5th Year, No. 1, 65-82.
Katamba, F (1993). Morphology, Macmillan: Macmillan Press LTD. 10.
Lieber, R. (2009). Introducing Morphology. Cambridge University Press. 11.
12. Sabzevari, M. (2009). Semantic Combinability in Modern Persian Compound Nouns. Ph.D. Thesis. Tehran: Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies.
13. Sabzevari, M. (2012). Semantic Transparency and Opacity in Persian Compound Nouns from a Cognitive Perspective. Quarterly of Language Inquires, 4th, No. 3 (Serial 15), 55-73.
14. Sabzevari, M. (2012). Explaining and Analyzing Semantic Relationships in Standard Persian Exocentric Compound Nouns. Critical Research Journal of Human Science Texts and Plans, Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies. The 12th Year, No. 1, 45-61.
15. Sabzevari, M. (2016). Investigation of Meaning Formation and Inference of Conceptual Patterns in Persian Endocentric Compound Nouns. Quarterly Scientific- Research Journal of Linguistics Research. Alzahra University.
Scalise S. et al. (2009). Exocentricity in Compounding, Gengo Kenkyu, 135: 49–84. 16.
17. Shaghaghi, V. (2007). An Introduction to Morphology. Tehran: Organization of Studies and Compilation of Books in Humanities Science for Universities (SAMT).
18. Shaki, M. (1964). A Study on Nominal Compoundsin Neo-Persian. Praha: Nakladatelstvi, Cekoslovenske VED.
19. Shokri, G. (2003). Encyclopedic Dictionary of Dabestani. Tehran: Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies.
20. Sotude, Q., Mehraki, I. and Soltani, A. (2006). Dictionary: Intermediate Dehkhod Dictionary. Tehran: University of Tehran Publication.
21. Tabatabayi, A. (2003). Compound Nouns and Adjectives in Persian Language. Tehran: University Publication Center.
22. Tehranisa, S.A. (1987). A Syntactic and Semantic Analysis of Compound Nouns in Persian. Ph.D Dissertation. University of Michigan.
Copyright (c) 2018 JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN LINGUISTICS
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.
The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations. The submitting author is responsible for securing any permissions needed for the reuse of copyrighted materials included in the manuscript.
While the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate on the date of its going to press, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.