JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN BIOLOGY Interested in submitting to this journal? We recommend that you review the About the Journal page for the journal's section policies, as well as the Author Guidelines. Authors need to register with the journal prior to submitting or, if already registered, can simply log in and begin the five-step process. CIRWORLD en-US JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN BIOLOGY 2347-6893 <p>Authors retain the copyright of their manuscripts, and all Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.</p> <p>The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations. The submitting author is responsible for securing any permissions needed for the reuse of copyrighted materials included in the manuscript.</p> <p>While the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate on the date of its going to press, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.</p> The Antihyperlipidaemic Property of Methanol Leaf Extract of Chrysophyllum albidum in Albino Rats (Wistar Strain) Fed on High Fat Diet. <p>Hyperlipidaemia is a well documented risk factor for cardiovascular disease, a major cause of mortality world-wide. <em>Chrysophyllum albidum </em>(white star apple) has several medicinal properties.&nbsp; Ingestion of the fruits has been found to lower lipid levels in the body, due to its high fibre content. Research works have shown that several parts of the plant are highly medicinal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihyperlipidaemic property of methanol leaf extract of <em>Chrysophyllum albidum</em> in Wistar rats fed with a high fat diet. Thirty male Wistar rats weighing between 130g-150g were distributed into five groups of six animals each. Group 1 received normal fat diet (NFD). Group 2 received high fat diet (HFD; Grower mash supplemented with 20% beef tallow). Group 3 received HFD and a standard lipid lowering drug, orlistat (20mg/kg body weight, p.o).&nbsp; Animals in group 4 and 5 were fed on HFD and received methanol leaf extract of <em>Chrysophyllum albidum, </em>250mg/kg and 500mg/kg, p.o respectively. The administration was carried out for 56 days. On the 57th day, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Organs were harvested and blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses. Results showed that the administration of HFD increased the total cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides levels and decreased the HDL- cholesterol levels significantly (p &lt;0.05). Simultaneous administration of <em>Chrysophyllum albidum</em> extract significantly (p&lt;0.05) reduced the total cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides levels and increased HDL- Cholesterol. Final body weights of animals that received <em>Chrysophyllum albidum</em> extract were significantly (p&lt;0.05) lower than final body weights of animals in groups 2 (negative control). Results from Histopathology revealed inflammation of the liver and kidney of rats in group 2 (negative control). On the other hand, rats that received orlistat and <em>Chrysophyllum albidum</em> extract had normal liver and kidney architecture. It was concluded that <em>Chrysophyllum albidum</em> extract showed antihyperlipidemic effect in rats fed with beef tallow supplemented diet.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Osebhahiemen Happiness Ojemekele Ehimwenma Sheena Omoregie ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-28 2018-02-28 11 1 2146 2154 10.24297/jab.v11i1.6793 Testosterone Level, Testicular Histology and Reproductive Events Of Caucasian Pit Viper, Gloydius Halys Caucasicus (Serpentes: Viperidae) <p>The steroid hormones regulate the reproductive physiology of animals and may influence by habitat and seasonal conditions. In this study, body weight and length, testosterone concentration and testicular histology were measured in Caucasian pit viper from Lar region, Tehran province, during summer and autumn seasons in year 2014. Serum samples were collected from 24 anesthetized snakes and testicles were removed and fixed for histological study. Enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) was conducted on serum samples to determine concentrations of testosterone (T) and standard histological procedure was performed on gonads. Results indicated that body weights and lengths in summer and fall seasons were respectively 49.88±9.6 gr, 50.25±7.4 cm and 42.75±4.5gr, 43.25±2.3 cm, serum testosterone level in summer, 29.3± 5.12 ng/ml was more than fall, 13.75±2.80 ng/ml at P≤0.05.The numbers of spermatogonias, spermatocytes and spermatids in summer were more than fall and statistically different at P≤0.05. The leydig cells number and diameter in fall were more than summer but differences were not significant.There were significant differences between seminiferous tubules diameter, germinal epithelial height and tunica albuginea thickness in summer as compared to fall at P≤0.05. The data suggest male Caucasian pit-viper of Lar region of Tehran displaying estival spermatogenesis and some relationship was revealed between T level and snake's body weight, and high level of T coincide with the mating period</p> Fatemeh Todehdehghan Arefeh Salehi Delaram EslimiEsfahani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-28 2018-02-28 11 1 2155 2162 10.24297/jab.v11i1.6755 Characterization of Phospholipase A2 Enzyme Activity in Serum of the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis)Soluble phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is an enzyme found in the peripheral circulation of vertebrates which has significant immunological activity. This en <p>Soluble phospholipase A<sub>2 </sub>(sPLA<sub>2</sub>) is an enzyme found in the peripheral circulation of vertebrates which has significant immunological activity.&nbsp; This enzyme exerts immune activity by the hydrolysis of fatty acids from the sn-2 position of membrane glycerophospholipids of microbes, thus compromising membrane integrity and casing eventual lysis.&nbsp; We utilized membrane fatty acids labeled with a fluorescent probe (BODIPY) at the sn-2 position fatty acid to label the membranes.&nbsp; Incubation of different volumes of serum from Komodo dragons with BODIPY-labeled bacteria resulted in liberation of labeled fatty acid in a serum volume-dependent manner. This cleavage of fatty acid occurred rapidly, with a biphasic production of fluorescent product.&nbsp; An immediate accumulation of product was noted, which increased steadily for a 30-minute period, followed by a slower hydrolysis between 30 and 180 min.&nbsp; The activity was temperature-dependent, with low activities observed at 5<sup>o</sup>C and a linear increase up to 40<sup>o</sup>C.&nbsp; The liberation for fatty acid was inhibited by <em>p</em>-bromophenacyl bromide, a specific phospholipase A<sub>2 </sub>(PLA<sub>2</sub>) inhibitor, in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that the activity was due to the presence of sPLA<sub>2</sub>.</p> Mark Merchant Bekky Muscher-Hodges Judith Bryja ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-21 2018-03-21 11 1 2163 2169 10.24297/jab.v11i1.7133 Nutritional Assessment and Molecular Identification of Microorganisms from Akhuni/Axone: A Soybean Based Fermented Food of Nagaland, India <p>Soybean based fermented foods are known to be highly nutritive, not just because it contains high protein content but also due to presence of polyphenols. Various microorganisms involved during the fermentation process have proven to play active role in the enhancement of the nutritional value as well as increase in phytochemicals in the product. <em>Akhuni/Axone</em> is a popular soybean product of Nagaland, India. It forms an integral part of the diet and is used as a condiment during preparation of various dishes in the Naga kitchen.&nbsp; This study describes the nutritional value, the antioxidant activity and the presence of polyphenols of <em>Akhuni/Axone, </em>which increase significantly in composition between the soybean seeds and the fermented product. The molecular identification of the microorganisms present in <em>Akhuni/Axone</em> product is also reported in this paper.</p> Chitta Ranjan Deb Bendangnaro Jamir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-24 2018-03-24 11 1 2170 2179 10.24297/jab.v11i1.7118 The Curative Effect of Berberine Nanoparticles and Cisplatin Combination Therapies Against Hepatocarcinogenesis-Induced By N-Nitroso-Diethylamine In Male Rat <p>This study aimed to investigate whether berberine nanoparticles (BBR-NPs) and/or cisplatin supplementation could prevent hepatocarcinogenesis-induced by N-nitroso-diethylamine (DENA) in male rats. Male <em>Wistar</em> albino rats were divided into five groups; Group 1: Control; Group 2: DENA-CCl<sub>4</sub>; Group 3: DENA-CCl<sub>4</sub>+Cisplatin; Group 4: DENA-CCl<sub>4</sub>+BBR-NPs; Group 5: DENA-CCl<sub>4</sub>+Cisplatin+BBR-NPs. DENA-CCl<sub>4</sub> significantly increase AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, GGT, AFP activities and total bilirubin, while, 5<sup>, </sup>NT,&nbsp; total protein and albumin decreased. DENA-CCl<sub>4</sub> treatment caused increment in MDA levels and reduction in SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH in liver tissues. Moreover, DENA-CCl<sub>4</sub> increase the gene expression of ADAM17 and TNF-α however, &nbsp;P53 was declined. In addition, DENA-CCl<sub>4</sub> caused severe histopathological lesions in the liver tissue. Interestingly, administration of berberine nanoparticles alone or in combination with cisplatin improves the hepatocarcinogenesis induced by DENA-CCl<sub>4</sub> on the physiological, biochemical, molecular and histological levels by decreasing oxidative stress and preserving gene expression of ADAM17, TNF-α and P53. The present findings suggest that BBR-NPs with cisplatin might offer a promising strategy for the prevention of liver cancer.</p> Nema Abdelhameed Mohamed Awatef Mohamed Ali Doaa Ahmed Ghareeb Adham Rashed Mohamed Yasmin Mohamed Elmokhtar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-03 2018-05-03 11 1 2180 2200 10.24297/jab.v11i1.7207