Main Article Content

Mohammad Reza Mohammadabadi


Clostridium perfringens, is an anaerobic, gram-positive, pathogenic and spore-forming bacillus and broadly gave out in our territory. This bacterium has spore formation capability and creating gangrene and gastrointestinal disease, for example food poisoning and necrotic enteritis in human, whilst in other animals, gastrointestinal and enterotoxemic diseases more happening. Prevalence of necrotic enteritis, created by C. perfringens, has been often stated in sheep, chickens and ostrich throughout the world. The most critical problem for epidemiological investigations and vaccines improvement is accurate recognition of C. perfringens variants. Moreover, Small ruminants, especially native breed types, play an important role to the livelihoods of a considerable part of human population in the tropics from socio-economic aspects. Therefore, integrated attempt in terms of management and genetic improvement to enhance production is of crucial importance. Poultry provide humans with companionship, food and fiber in the form of eggs, meat and feathers. Many people love to raise and show chickens and other poultry species at fairs and other poultry shows. Others just love to raise them for backyard pets and for fresh eggs every day. In the last few years, ostrich farming has progressed dramatically and the world ostrich industry has achieved some economic stability. There is considerable scope for improvement in the areas of artificial incubation, chick nutrition, environmental requirements and selective breeding. Hence, the aim of this paper was to study role of Clostridium perfringens in pathogenicity of sheep, broilers and Ostrich. In conclusion, recognition of toxins producing by C. perfringens is very momentous because their toxin types are related to particular gastric and intestinal animal sickness and PCR has become an essential research and diagnostic tool, being a powerful technique with a vast and increasing range of applications. Hence, it is better that animal breeders identify different types of C. perfringens using PCR technique to prevent the damage caused by this bacterium.  

Article Details

How to Cite
MOHAMMADABADI, Mohammad Reza. ROLE OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS IN PATHOGENICITY OF SOME DOMESTIC ANIMALS. JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN AGRICULTURE, [S.l.], v. 7, n. 3, p. 1117-1121, sep. 2017. ISSN 2349-0837. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 20 oct. 2017. doi:


1. Afshari, A., Jamshidi, A., Razmyar, J., and Rad, M. 2015. Genotyping of Clostridium perfringens isolated from broiler meat in northeastern of Iran. Vet. Res. Forum. 6, 279-84.
2. Ahsani, M.R., Bafti, M.S., Esmailizadeh, A.K., and Mohammadabadi, M.R. 2011. Genotyping of isolates of Clostridium perfringens from vaccinated and unvaccinated sheep. Small Rumin. Res. 95, 65-69.
3. Ahsani, M.R., Mohammadabadi, M.R., Shamsaddini Bafti, M., Ezatkhah, M., Hasani, M., Esmailzadeh, A.K., and Hasani Derakhshan, M. 2010a. Application of triplex PCR technique in identification of clostridium perfringens b, c and d types. Iran J. Anim. Sci. Res. 2, 185-90.
4. Ahsani, M.R., Mohammadabadi, M.R., and Shamsaddini Bafti, M. 2010b. Clostridium perfringens isolate typing by multiplex PCR. J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis.16, 573-78.
5. Albini, S., Brodard, I., Jaussi, A., Wollschlaeger, N., Frey, J., and Miserez, R. 2008. Real-time multiplex PCR assays for reliable detection of Clostridium perfringens toxin genes in animal isolates. Vet. Microbiol. 127, 179-85.
6. Baron, E.J., Finegold, S.M., and Martin, W.J. 1990. Organisms encountered in the urinary tract. In: Baron EJ, Finegold SM, editors. Bailey and Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology. St. Louis: Mosby, 49-194.
7. Baums, C.G., Schotte, U., Amtsberg, G., and Goethe, R. 2004. Diagnostic multiplex PCR for toxin genotyping of Clostridium perfringens isolates. Vet. Microbiol. 100, 11-6.
8. De la Rosa, C., Hogue, D.E., and Thonney, M.L. 1997. Vaccination schedules to raise antibody concentrations against epsilon-toxin of Clostridium perfringens in ewes and their triplet lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 75, 2328–2334.
9. El Idrissi, A.H., Ward, G.E., Johnson, D.W., Benkirane, A., and Fassi-Fehri, M.M., 1992. Bacteriological investigation of sudden sheep mortality in Morocco. Prev. Vet. Med. 12, 35–46.
10. Guran, H.S., and Oksuztepe, G. 2013. Detection and typing of Clostridium perfringens from retail chicken meat parts. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 57, 77-82.
11. Gurjar, A.A., Hegde, N.V., Love, B.C., and Jayarao, B.M. 2008. Real-time multiplex PCR assay for rapid detection and toxin typing of Clostridium perfringens toxin producing strains in feces of dairy cattle. Mol. Cell. Probes. 22, 90-5.
12. Juneja, V.K., Marks, H., and Thippareddi, H. 2008. Predictive model for growth of Clostridium perfringens during cooling of cooked uncured beef. Food Microbiol. 25, 42-55.
13. Kalender, H., Ertas, H.B., Cetinkaya, B., Muz, A., Arslan, N., and Kilic, A. 2005. Typing of isolates of Clostridium perfringens from healthy and diseased sheep by multiplex PCR. Vet. Med. 50, 439-42.
14. Khodabakhshzadeh, R., Mohamadabadi, M.R., Esmailizadeh, A.K., Moradi Shahrebabak, H., and Bordbar, F. 2016b. Identification of point mutations in exon 2 of GDF9 gene in Kermani sheep. Pol. J. Vet. Sci. 19, 281-289.
15. Leite-Browning, M., 2007. Vaccination Protocol for a Goat Herd. Extension Animal Scientist. Alabama University.
16. MacFaddin JF. Biochemical tests for identification of medical bacteria. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1-450.
17. Miyashiro, S., Nassar, A.F.C., Fava, C., Cabral, A.D., and Silva, M. 2007. Clostridium perfringens types A and D associated with enterotoxemia in an 18-month-old goat. J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis. 13, 885-93.
18. Moazeni, S.M., Mohammadabadi, M.R., Sadeghi, M., Moradi Shahrbabak, H., and Esmailizadeh, A.K. 2016a. Association of the melanocortin-3(MC3R) receptor gene with growth and reproductive traits in Mazandaran indigenous chicken. J. Livest. Sci. Technol. 4, 51-56.
19. Moazeni, S.M., Mohammadabadi, M.R., Sadeghi, M., Moradi Shahrbabak, H., Esmailizadeh, A.K. and Bordbar, F. 2016b. Association between UCP gene polymorphisms and growth, breeding value of growth and reproductive traits in Mazandaran indigenous chicken. Open J. Anim. Sci. 6, 1-8.
20. Mohammadabadi, M.R., Esfandyarpoor, E., and Mousapour, A. 2017. Using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat Multi-Loci Markers for Studying Genetic Diversity in Kermani Sheep. J. Res. Dev. 5, 154.
21. Mohammadabadi, M.R., and Sattayimokhtari, R. 2013. Estimation of (co) variance components of ewe productivity traits in kermani sheep. Slovak J. Anim. Sci. 46, 45-51.
22. Mohammadabadi, M.R., Shaikhaev, G.O., Sulimova, G.E., Rahman, O., and Mozafari, M.R. 2004. Detection of bovine leukemia virus proviral DNA in Yaroslavsl, Mongolian and black pied cattle by PCR. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. 9, 766-68.
23. Mohammadabadi, M.R., Soflaei, M., Mostafavi, H., and Honarmand, M. 2011. Using PCR for early diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus infection in some native cattle. Genet. Mol. Res. 10, 2658-2663.
24. Mohammadabadi, M.R., Nikbakhti, M., Mirzaee, H.R., Shandi, M.A., Saghi, D.A., Romanov, M.N., and Moiseyeva, I.G. 2010b. Genetic variability in three native Iranian chicken populations of the Khorasan province based on microsatellite markers. Russ J. Genet. 46, 572–576.
25. Mohammadabadi, M.R., Torabi, A., Tahmourespoor, M., Baghizadeh, A., Esmailizadeh, A.K., and Mohammadi, A. 2010a. Analysis of bovine growth hormone gene polymorphism of local and Holstein cattle breeds in Kerman province of Iran using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Afr. J. Biotechnol. 9, 6848-6852.
26. Mohammadifar, A., Faghih Imani, S.A., Mohammadabadi, M.R., and Soflaei, M. 2013. The effect of TGF3 gene on phenotypic and breeding values of body weight traits in Fars native fowls. J. Agric. Biotechnol. 5, 125-136.
27. Nowell, V.J., Poppe, C., Parreira, V.R., Jiang, Y.F., Reid-Smith, R., and Prescott, J.F. 2010. Clostridium perfringens in retail chicken. Anaerobe 16, 314-315.
28. Piatti, R.M., Ikuno, A.A., and Baldassi, L. 2004. Detection of bovine Clostridium perfringens by polymerase chain reaction. J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis. 10, 154-160.
29. Sawires, Y.S., and Songer, J.G. 2006. Clostridium perfringens: insight into virulence evolution and population structure. Anaerobe 12, 23-43.
30. Shahdadnejad, N., Mohammadabadi, M., and Shamsadini, M. 2016. Typing of Clostridium Perfringens Isolated from Broiler Chickens Using Multiplex PCR. G3M. 14, 4368-4374
31. Siegfried, W.R. 1984. Ostrich. In I.L. Mason, ed. Evolution of domesticated animals, p. 364-366. London, UK, Longman.
32. Songer, J.G., and Meer, R.R. 1996. Genotyping of Clostridium perfringens by polymerase chain reaction is a useful adjunct to diagnosis of clostridial enteric disease in animals. Anaerobe 2, 197-203.
33. Soufy, B., Mohammadabadi, M.R., Shojaeyan, K., Baghizadeh, A., and Ferasaty, S. 2009. Evaluation of Myostatin gene polymorphism in Sanjabi sheep by PCR-RFLP method. Anim. Sci. Res. 19, 81-89.
34. Timoney, J.F., Gillespie, J.H., Scott, F.W., and Barlough, J.E. 1988. Hagan and Bruner’s microbiology and infectious diseases of domestic animals. 8th ed. Ithaca: Comstock Publishing Associates, 214-240.
35. Tooloei, M., and Masodie, M.H. 2008. The distribution and prevalence rate of enterotoxemia in sheep in East Azarbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 7, 1434–1439.
36. Uzal, F.A., and Kelly, W.R. 1998. Experimental Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxaemia in goats. Vet. Pathol. 32, 132–140.
37. Vaikosen, E.S., and Ikhatua, U.J. 2005. Detection of high level of enterotoxin of Clostridum perfingens types C and D in small ruminants in Nigeria. Small Ruminant Res. 58, 287–290.
38. van Asten, A.J.A.M., van der Wiel, C.W., Nikolaou, G., Houwers, D.J., and Grone A.A. 2009. Multiplex PCR for toxin typing of Clostridium perfringens. Vet. Microbiol. 136, 411-412.
39. Veschi, J.L.A., Dutra, I.S., Miyakawa, M.E.F., Perri, S.H.V., and Uzal, F.A. 2006. Immunoprophylactic strategies against enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringens type D in goats. Pesqui. Vet. Bras. 26, 51–54.
40. Vyver, A. van der. 1992. Viewpoint: The world ostrich industry will South Africa maintain its domination. Agrekon. 31, 47-49.
41. Wojdat, E., Kwiatek, K., and Kozak, M. 2006. Occurrence and characterization of some Clostridium species isolated from animal feeding stuffs. Bull. Vet. Inst. Pulawy. 50, 63-67.
42. Yoo, H.S., Lee, S.U., Park, K.Y., and Park, Y.H. 1997. Molecular typing and epidemiological survey of prevalence of Clostridium perfringens types by multiplex PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35, 228-232.
43. Zandi, E., Mohammadabadi, M.R., Ezzatkhah, M., and Esmailizadeh, A.K. 2014. Multiplex PCR. Typing of Toxigenic Isolates of Clostridium Perfringens by in Ostrich. Iran.J. Appl. Anim. Sci. 4, 509-514.